Monday, February 29, 2016

Fiction: Sable Antelope Creation

“Come my minion. Come to the sound of my voice! I know you can no longer see….after the incident. Ah! There you are! I want to introduce you to my newest creation. Mwhahahaah” I cackle madly, my lab coat swooshing around me to the crash of thunder as it vibrates the ancient castle clinging to the mountain. “Never before has anyone been prepared for what you are not about to see, Oh, and by the way, so sorry about that!”

With a giggle, I madly walk over to the switch. Inside the cage is a beast no one could ever be prepared for! I look over at my apprentice, annoyed that he will not be able to visually observe my creation. That is just as well. I will inform him of the creature’s obvious value. If he was still able to see I wouldn’t have to explain things, but well, I needed those eyes for a very important experiment! As for this newest experiment, oh, its unusual nature would be obvious, but the most valuable aspects of this creature would never be seen. It was said in great hunts, they would shoot these great creatures directly in the hearts and lungs, and still the great ebony beasts would continue to charge on.

“Minion. I am going to describe my creature to you so you understand the power of what we are working with here.” I explain to the waif as he carefully makes his way toward me, the sound of his staff clicking on the ground as he used it to maneuver carefully through the equipment. “This magnificent creature has most notable two tall horns stretching and curling over its head. From its far too-human eyes to its nose, its face dips down curving into large nostrils to breathe in deeply and a rounded mouth.”

“It has slender muscular arms ending in broad, thick hard claws. A soft fur covers the creature’s body. It has a long, shaggy mane and broad shoulders. The legs are strong but appear delicate and they bend back into a hock quite unlike normal human legs. The legs end in cloven hooves. However, it is what you cannot see that truly makes it fascinating.” I tell my minion.

“This creature is very unique endotherm, it has many physical qualities that allow it to excel over simple humans. I even checked its vitals, and when I checked its mucus membrane, I could tell it was healthy. This creature’s cilia lined nares open up to the nasal turbinates that humidify, filter and warm the air the being is breathing enters its meatus. Olfactory senses allow the creature to smell, giving it the ability to discern far more than we could as simple humans. Tonsils protect the upper throat and nasal cavities.” I explain to my minion.

“As a ruminant, this creature has frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, palatine, lacrimal and conchal sinuses, mucus making cavities that lighten bone and help create sound. Air then travels into the pharynx which is composed of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx. Like us, when he swallows, the soft palate cuts off the nasopharynx to prevent the food from entering the nasal cavity. The epiglottis is what covers the nasal cavity when swallowing.

“Between the pharynx and the trachea is the larynx, or voice box. This is where the vocal cords make sound. And he is quite the singer…and bellower with an amazing range of sound. In the glottis you will find the vocal apparatus, vocal cords that allow air to go though the glottis like a chamber, to vibrate the vocal cords to produce sound. So there, you have it, I made a friend for us to talk to!”
My Half-human, Half-Sable Antelope Creation! Mwahahaha!

Fiction: Bear Bones

The massive bear bellowed in the hollow cavern, his long dark eyes gleaming as he roared and leapt at the man. The man tried desperately to escape, but the huge paw came sweeping out. With a cry of his own, he tried to swing at it with the only weapon he had, a length of bull horn. The large bear snarled, his gleaming teeth flashing as he swung the bulky head down. The horn landed the bear across the snout and face. A sickening crunch sound answered, and the bear was swinging wild. The man would have done more had the bear stood still, he though grimly. The monster roared, teeth gnashing into the man’s shoulder. He wailed, and kicked back, planting a foot squarely on the wounded beast’s chest. The bear swung with its arms downward, and blood ensured. The man cried out, like the bellow of a bull, pushing up with the horn in a violent upward sweep as the bear plunged down with its thick claws.
“We are very excited about this find. I am so glad you could make it out. There are human, bull and bear remains. I know it’s a long trip.” Said Alicia as she lead us to the site. “We have made some interesting discoveries here before, but this is very exciting. I am glad you are here to let us know what kind of body it is. We’ve been trying to determine the age of the bones.”
Alarmed, Tariel looked at the woman “Wait, did anyone touch the bones?” She asked.
“Yes, Professor Corvid.” She answered. Tariel sighed, who knew what could have been changed from someone touching the body. “He’s an archeology professor at the college out here.” continued the woman, not noticing Tariel’s slumped shoulders.
They entered the cave and Tariel admired it as it was. Thick lines built up in the walls in red, white and ebony made dark streaks of wild looking bulls, horses with round bellies, raging mammoths and other, strange horned creatures. Tariel looked around, a soft glaze of crystal on some of the walls surprised her. She turned, taking in all the details. Long, sinuous stalactites and stalagmites pointed up and down from some of the places. Water had long ago damaged some areas, but others were remarkably well preserved from the gleam of crystals. Even a few bones lay in disarray. That happened sometimes, when places were abandoned for whatever reason. There were a few bodies around, but along the floor was a worn path. Broken crystals and bits of tossed dirt lead toward the back of the cave. In the center of the large chamber, lay the piles of white bones. She moved along, looking at the bones as clearly as she could. She began to examine them, her eyes running along the dark ridge marks that marred the bone. She began the excavation, looking over it to try to identify what she was seeing.
“Do you think you’ll be able to identify which culture you are seeing, or what this is?” Alicia asked, her eyes going wide as she looked closer, as if that would allow her to see what Tariel was noticing. Tariel’s eyebrows knit together as she scanned the bones. Her shoulders tightened as she straightened.
“Yes.” Tariel’s voice grew haunted “I can.” and she moved away as though dodging a venomous serpent. “But you’re not going to like what I have to say.” She turned to look at the woman. “This body is recent, this is not an ancient person.”
Officer Dietrich moved over, his eyes taking in what he saw. “This appears to be an animal attack?” he asked, scanning the body.
“I didn’t say that, really, I told your deputy that there were signs of an animal attack. A lot of damage, some of it to the bone.” Tariel responded as she walked over to the officer who was kneeling and monitoring what he saw.   Tariel stopped, suddenly looking at the officer and not wanting to get too close. She wasn’t sure why she was so nervous. Was she always this way around police? Or was he just special? She flushed and turned back to paying attention to what she saw. This was a recent body, and unlike the ones she’d seen in her internships, this was an unsolved mystery. Something she never would have thought to find herself in. The officer wanted her to stay though, her education on the subject of ancient bodies was still applicable.
“So what is this?” He asked, turning his attention to he scythe like horn by the skeleton’s side. “It appears to be what killed him” He says, looking at the horn wedged beside a couple of ribs.
“Well, there have been a few people here to move things around” Said Tariel. “I tried to be careful, but I was told a professor was here who had looked at it. Perhaps we should see if it looked that way. It could be a tool. It has crystallization on it that indicates it is part of this site landscape, since it has the same crystallization. You can tell from this dark patina, that there has been some urination here by this body. It changes the cave. Looking at the body, and judging by fact the skull looks male and the sacrum is tilted forward and the ilia lie close together, creating a narrow pelvic outlet, I am sure this was a man.” Tariel said, leaning back on her heels.
“The incisors are spatulate, and no notable flaring in the nasal opening, which could indicate European Caucasian descent, but its too hard to tell, since there are many indicators. Race is hard to tell, but we need to identify the body. Do you think you could see how long ago this happened?” Asked Officer Dietrich.
“I can see,” answered Tariel “I have never tried. But looking at those teeth, those wisdom teeth had just emerged, in fact, since they are still growing in, I would judge this man at just over 21.” She shook her head “So young.” She said with pity then sighed as she contemplated the room. “Looking at the surroundings, the person did not have much time to alter the surroundings. In fact, they may have just discovered it. I see signs of bear, paws, prints in the sand, but some have been disturbed. Based off of the size of the bones, I would guage his height to be around 5’6” and his weight to be on the lighter side.”
Officer Dietrich turned his attention to the marks, “Some of these are modern” he observed. “I see several footprints here.” Commented the officer as took a few pictures and motioned for the photographer to do the same.  “In fact, I am interested in this now that you mention it. I heard you say that someone else had been here. I see footprints, barefoot, some bear prints, your shoes, he motioned to her. Our shoes, he motioned to the officers, her shoes, he pointed out Alicia and I understand the professor was here. But that does not account for these.” He motioned to some prints, partially covered  as they moved along the edge, separate from the other prints. “These are fine prints. Good shoes, look at it, and they have something going on with them.”  The officer commented on the strange color near the prints.
“That is signs of bear urine and the bear skeleton in the rear part of the cave may be responsible.” Tariel said “but for the marks to appear like that, the prints walked through wet urine. You can tell by the patina that it was urine. Bears do not normally urinate inside, particularly in their den, so that is very unusual. Normally they like to go outside, even when hibernating, they do not urinate, instead they recycle the waste, breaking it down into reusable pieces. Bears may get more muscle after they hibernate!” Tariel rambled, then realized she was talking because she was nervous and she blushed. “Oh, here I am rambling on about Ursine Urinary habits, but it is fascination.” She flushed and turned away. “well, the biology behind it, you know” She grew more and more flustered. For once, the officer’s face broke into a bemused smile and the frigid features gave way to a gleaming grin.
Tariel turned away, eager to change the subject. “Well, lets see.” She said, turning back to the man’s body, and the mysterious extra footprints. Who would walk through bear urine? Who would brave it? But sure enough, ebony patinas made their way partially to the back of the cave as if someone were seeking out the bear. Tariel followed, eager to see the bear and what it displayed. They looked over the bear’s body and she was surprised to find that in the skull, there was a thick, wicked hole. “This matches that horn we saw. It went in the eye socket with a downward trajectory. The bear probably didn’t kill that man immediately, but I think it may have lead to his final death from his wounds. The bear was likely killed very fast.” Tariel said as she looked over the massive pile of bones. “This was a huge bear, and out of place for the area.  This is not a local bear. She realized with surprise.”This bear is a brown bear, they have not been in this region for a long time. I am assuming this from the size, the shape of the  claws which are longer and straighter claws. You can see the shoulders were larger and probably had that telltail “hump.” I think you’re looking at a zoo escapee or something. I see no signs of denning or hibernation. There’s no sign that the bear even lived here.” She realized as she looked around, trying to identify if the bear had been here long. “There is no natural digging on behalf of the bear, in fact, most of the prints are singular trails. The bear was not here long.”
“Well,” answered Officer Dietrich, “I guess we will finish up here and do some research into the zoo issue. I will contact you if we need your assistance further. Would you be interested in being a consultant for further animal questions?”
“Of course,” answered Tariel “I am always available to help.”
“I am glad you were able to make it” Officer Dietrich told Tariel. “I found that there were no missing bears from any zoos, circuses or anything, so I started to look in private certifications. No missing bears. Except one, but get this, this bear disappeared six years ago from a Bear reserve an entire  state away. What does that look like to you.” He pushed a manila envelope across the table.
Tariel pulled out photos of a small bear cub. “This young male cub was taken from the sanctuary six years ago. Rumor has it, that since this sanctuary was on a known drug route, it was taken by someone involved in drugs. The case had been dropped and it was assumed that the bear was poached.”
“Well, it’s the same breed, it appears, and due to the size, it could be the same age. Lets see.” She looked it over. “Yes, it’s a brown bear.” Tariel looked over the photos of the bear image, and noticed a building in the background. She tried to read it. “Fourhills Diabetes Researchers” she said aloud. Officer Dietrich looked over. “Yes, its nearby another business.”
“Why would this be on a known drug route? What is near it?” She  asked.
“Not much, local officers had been identifying some of the traffickers, additionally, they found they went through this town.” Tariel looked over the images again.
“Well, they must be there for a reason, and I don’t think it was a bear. In fact, I think it was an accident. Many people would love a small bear, not realizing it gets larger. I say, find out why someone would have to go there around that date, and maybe you’ll know more.” Stunned, the officer shook his head. “I will have them check in on it there, but medical information can be difficult to monitor due to confidentiality.”
“Well, they have to find a way to let you get the information.” Tariel smiled, sipping coffee as she looked over the image. “It is cute. Someone probably thought that when they saw it.” She turned back to her coffee, mulling over what she’d heard.
The officer welcomed her. “I am glad to see you, I believe you’ve really helped more than you think. We were able to get the information, and on the day the bear went missing, there was only one transaction. Surprisingly, or not, it was the daughter of a known drug dealer, but she was found murdered about a year and a half ago. They found her body not far from here, in fact. Tariel felt ready to cry. That was not what she was expecting to here.
“She was murdered. She was diabetic.” Her brain was trying to process. “Yes, we brought her father in for questioning. We have a warrant to check the property. Then, we’ll be interviewing him. I want you in the back, watching through the one way mirror and let me know if you can tell me if he’s being honest. Tariel nodded numbly.
“When?” She asked faintly.
“Now, if you can, first we check the property we have the warrant for, then we check him with the interview.” She straightened, trying to hold back the regurgitation that threatened to sneak into her mouth. She nodded, swallowing the vile feeling in the pit of her stomach.
“I will, it won’t save any lives, but maybe it can answer some questions.” She said softly. “The bear must have gotten loose? They don’t think the bear is who killed the girl, right?”
“Actually, that is where things get weird. You see, the girl’s killer may have been that body we found.” Startled, Tariel looked up, her green eyes wide with shock.
“Are you serious.”
“I am a police officer. I am always serious.” Officer Dietrich said, looking down at the paperwork. Tariel looked down, then glanced back up.
“I am ready.” She said softly, standing straight, and with that, he lead her to the room to watch the interview.
“Thank you for meeting with us, Alan Willers. Did you kill Rod Cervos?” Officer Dietrich asked with concern to the man he was interviewing. The man showed little expression.
“No.” he said, his voice loud, firm. Office Dietrich and Tariel watched from their particular places, trying to determine what had occurred. Tariel watched the man’s behavior. She had supplied some questions.
“What did you call the bear?” Asked Officer Dietrich?
“What bear?” Asked the man. “A teddy bear.” He asked. Something about the way he said that, peaked Tariel’s interest. The way his eyes lit up, the way his mouth twitched on one corner only indicated that he did know something. She  leaned forward watching him.
“Did you know Rod Cervos.” He asked. The man’s eyes grew shadowed. He very carefully said his reply.
“I did. I think you know that.” He said, the fury in the room nearly palpable the way he snarled the words out low and slow.
“We looked over your property and we found some interesting features. Some time ago, you appear to have had a bear on your property. Near the barn we found indications that a bear had once hibernated in one of the stalls. Hibernation plugs that didn’t completely disintegrate were found in front of the barn. I find it hard to believe that you would need metal caging to keep in any horse that I know. We both know that bear was on your property.” Officer Dietrich said coolly.
“Look! That man killed my daughter, it was only just deserving that her Teddy destroy him.” Hissed the man at the officer. Dietrich looked surprised at the answer. “I just finished what the bear couldn’t end. What does it matter. She’s gone….she was the only thing I ever cared about.”

Fiction: Animals of the Past

Music creates a calming atmosphere as we accept our drinks and find a place away from everyone else to talk. There are lots of people, but I am not terribly interested in the crowd since I am more interested in discovering more about my date. We find a nice area next to the atrium which is filled with lush plants and appears almost jungle like in atmosphere. Inside, a large cockatoo bobs its head, spreading white wings and sporting a yellow Mohawk he eagerly displays. His claws cling to the perch, a stylized tree perch. Outside of the aviary, there are a few pictures of the animal’s owner and some pictures of them with their other animals and animals they have been in movies with. I walk over to see the goats, horses, sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, birds and other more exotic animals. I smile as I look over the animals and say “I really enjoy looking at these animals, I like how they’ve put this picture up of the herd of goats, and this fine stallion.” I wait for them to walk over and they look them over.
“I really wish I knew more about animals.” He says. “I have been obsessed with them ever since I was young. If I hadn’t gone into my current industry, I would have worked more with animals.”
“Perhaps if you had a chance to work with animals you would find it to be a passion. I was born on a farm, so I have worked with animals. We grew up with herds of rabbits, goats and horses, flocks of chickens and ducks, a pack of dogs, cats, mice, chinchillas, finches, a gaggle of geese and even a sheep.” He looks surprised but happy.
“You certainly had a lot of pets” He agreed.
I smile and nod in response “yes, a lot of pets indeed.”
“Which pet did you enjoy the most?” he asks, smiling, since he is pretty sure he knows the answer.
“I had an Arabian mare, named Camille. I owned many horses, but she was our first and last, and she grew up with us. She and I were the same age and we were trained together. I would ride her as much as I could even though she was more my mother’s horse. My horse was a gelding, named Star, but he was sold when I was 12, so after that I bonded mostly with Camille. Her sire was Bey el Bey and her dam, or mother was Royal Sateen, they were very good horses for the time. She was a very fast horse and loved to jump.” I smile as I remember how we would practice dressage, or race along, timing her incredible speed, and how sometimes we would take her over jumps.”
“You miss her, don’t you?” He laughs, I nod. “Tell me your favorite memory of her then.”
“Yes, she helped me a lot. She was always there to take us and the rest of the group where we wanted. When we lived behind Silverton State Park, we would ride up behind the house into the forest. It would be me and the strangest herd you’ve ever seen. Our dog, a Great Dane would always lead the way. Camille would follow and that meant the other horses would follow since she was lead mare. The goat doe would tag along inevitably. Even our cats would sometimes follow to see what we were doing.
“You had a goat!” he exclaims “I love goats!”
Laughing, I agree “I love goats too. My mom has bred and raised milk goats for many years. The one I speak of was our first goat, but there have been many, many more since then. The bucks, or breeding boys, since we don’t keep wethers, or altered males, always smell funny, but they are cute. I always enjoy when the does are freshening, or having their kids. I have been there many times when they have been kidding and I have helped birth or been present for lots of kids.”
“You really know a lot about goats.” He laughs. “I bet you even know how they digest food, I hear its really strange, like they have multiple stomachs!”
“Well, I can explain it if you like. The ruminant regurgitates their food, then they remasticate, or chew it. This allows for their stomach to process and ferment ingested food using bacteria and protozoa. These intestinal flora make enzymes that ferment and digest the plant. When the animal regurgitates the undigested food from its rumen to the mouth, it chews its cud and swallows it again. The ruminant stomach is divided into four parts, the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. Their stomach is divided into four parts. As the animal ages, their stomach changes since different chambers process differently. The abomasum is the true stomach, which is more similar to what monogastric animals have, and in baby ruminants, there is a reticular groove to move the milk to the abomasum. This is because the milk does not need to ferment as long as the vegetation it will consume as an adult. Goats are not the only ruminants, as there are about 150 species. Cattle, goats, sheep, yaks, deer, antelope, llamas, camel, giraffes and some macropods (marsupials) are all ruminants.”
“Thank you! I feel like now at least I know a little something about animals!” He grins widely as he looks up at the pictures on the wall. “I feel now like I am more familiar with them.” 

Fiction: Martian Magic

The exploration of Mars has revealed some interesting and unique life that is unlike much of what we have witnessed on earth. The early loss of a viable atmosphere and magnetic field left Mar’s surface vulnerable to radiation, chilling temperatures and surface damage. Although the surface may not be home to life, the subsurface which we have just begun to explore has proven to be teeming with creatures. Long ago, volcanic vents allowed water to be trapped below the surface. In fact, due to the deadly radiation, life does not even begin to survive underground until the nine or ten meter mark. At this level, bacterial life has eked out an existence. You do not see more complex lifeforms until you go down to around twenty meters. Most of the water sources toward the surface are highly salinated and cannot support most known life.

Robots known as “trappers” have gone far underground, following the volcanic vents. Of the many vents explored, only three were long enough and traveled deep enough to result in live capture. The Martian Gesyers proved to have seasonal minimal microbial activity with one known “plant” species. Sample lifeforms were captured by “trappers” and many photos were taken of some of the teeming life. Each of the vents had its own ecological system. However, as the cameras moved underground, they opened up into a large chamber. Here, life was thriving. Most of the light was bioluminescent, produced by organisms, mosses and lichens that glowed.

The first lifeform that was discovered as we began were single celled organisms. The first muliticelled organism was nicknamed Pegagerm. These were captured and logged for further information. Additional multicellular creature we found, was in the geysers. There are “plants” formed more simlar to lichen, as they are moss-like yet survive with the much needed support of the Pegagerm lifeforms.
Photographic evidence was captured of some large animal species, multicellular creatures we were not expecting to find. They are distinct from animals found on earth due to their secondary appendages on the back (usually “wings” or “tentacle-like” appendages). Some of the larger animals can survive for short amounts of time outside the water or on the surface, but those are rare.

Vent 23r4, nicknamed Unicorn both for the shape of the vent and for the creatures found in it, contained the most lifeforms. The withers of many other animals regularly support wing-like appendages that allow for flight on Mars, due to its low gravity. The bones of many flying animals are hollow on earth, and it is suspected that this holds true in Mars as well. These hollow bones are supported by internal struts. This improves flight capability by reducing body weight.  Most of the creatures have iridescent scales which appear to help reduce the effects of radiation. Bioluminescence is very common, especially among the creatures living beneath Mar’s surface.
The Martian Unicorns, like many Martian animals, are covered in fine scales, fur and feathers. A delicate scaling covers most of the body, with highly developed “fuzz or fur” covering a primary part of the body. Fully developed hair grows along the mane, tail and cannon bones of the unicorn. The unicorns are larger than the griffons but smaller than the dragons. Their horns are believed to be one of the ways that they navigate in the low-light conditions under Mar’s surface. Unicorns rarely venture out of the vents. They are well-suited to life under the surface of mars, but like some of the larger animals, their specialized hair and scales help them reduce the effects of radiation. However, they still cannot survive long. They have specialized hairs throughout their body which flux with bioluminescence. It is unclear the use of this bioluminescence, but it is believed to be related to their mating habits and are most clear on the barrel and wings.

Similar to a “Griffon,” the Martian Griffon is a large creature that seems to spend the most time out of water of many of the Martian creatures. They spend a good amount of time in the vents, and come into the open area to socialize and eat. They are most noted for feathering on the tail which appears to help it maneuver while in flight. They have ears that seem rather “horse-like” in appearance, which it uses to help fly via echolocation as they emit a clicking sound from their beaks. The Griffon also has a rather traditional wing structure, similar to Earth birds.
The “Martian Dragon” is one of the largest and most impressive creatures as of yet discovered. The tail is equipped with a spade which has been shown to be effective in breaking ice during the dragon’s rare travels to the surface. The Dragons appear to be one of the more effective species to survive on the surface of Mars. They use the vents to venture out, and seem to absorb solar rays. The Pinneal Eye may not actually have the same qualities as we observe in lizards on our planet, but it is likely that it still possesses some qualities of light observation. The crest likely conceals what we recognize as hearing faculties. The hock and stifle are longer than would be expected, and it is suspected that it has to do with the climbing the animal does while in the cave systems as they exit.
Dragon Behavior is unique, and they display a remarkable social life. They often display “peeking” while in the water, a behavior to attract others of its kind, as they swim through the water, they display their dorsal spines, and prop up their wing thumbs. The rest of the wing stays in the water and they pump the wings under the water. It appears that the head and body of the creature as well as the appendages “peek” in and out of the water.” This allows the horns, crest and tails spade to flick a large amount of water around.

The “mermaid” visually appears to be the creature most similar to humans. In fact, we only got one photograph of a mermaid and it is the reason the expedition had to pull out of the exploration. Upon viewing the camera, the mermaid immediately moved into an aggressive stance. It was obvious upon observation that the mermaid was intelligent, as it displayed functioning equipment, including clothing and basic weaponry. Flexible wing-like appendages on the creature’s back allow for maneuverability in the water. Surprisingly, the creature showed some minor morphology, similar to an octopus, displaying color alteration and body modification.  The mermaid used “peeking behavior” seen in dragons as an aggressive stance toward the camera.

Fiction: Movie Stars

I welcome the movie stars to the veterinary clinic and I inquire as to whether they would like a primer to Veterinary Technology in the event they feature one in a show. If they consent, I give them a quick overview. I describe that there are many tools of the trade. I explain an effective way of ensuring a “realistic portrayal” is to use vocabulary that enhances their acting experience. I describe first that there are many types of animals, but some of the body parts, such as the bone and muscle systems have similar names to each other or the names are the same. I also point out that human systems have similar names.

“The musculoskeletal system includes the muscle and skeletal structure which give the animal its body support. The skeleton is the framework and protects the body. There are two primary parts of the bone, the cortical bone, or hard outer layer of the bone and the cancellous, the spongy sections usually at the ends of bones. I explain that each part, section and protrusion of the bones has a name it is referred to by. Descriptions of bone locations are usually determined by the orientation of the animal and its body structure. We use arthroscopy to examine the joints and radiology to study the internal body structure. These can be used to determine physical issues such as hip dysplasia, or abnormal development of the pelvic joint common in large dogs.

Some body parts are simple to remember, such as the face. However, the skull is called the cranium and the mandible creates the lower jaw. There are several parts to the spinal system, such as the cervical vertebrae by the neck which joins to the thoratic vertebrae along the back. The lower back is the lumbar vertebrae which moves into the sacral vertebrae and ends in the coccygeal, or caudal vertebrae. The shoulders are the scapula. The clavical is the top of the chest, which then moves into the sternum which composes of the ribs.

Fracture terminology may be of use in an acting experience. Avulstions are when a muscle, ligament or tendon is pulled until it detaches. Callus is when a deposit around a bone fracture bulges and may form into bone. Closed fratures are also called simple fractures and means there is no skin wound. Comminuted fractures are when a bone has broken and it has been crushed or splintered into many pieces. When a bone is pressed together and breaks, these are called compression fractures. When there is a cracking sensation you can hear and feel, it is called crepitation and indicates broken bones are moving together. Fractures simply mean broken bones. If the bone is broken on one side, but the other side is bent, this is referred to as a greenstick fracture, or incomplete fracture. An oblique fracture is when a bone has broken diagonal to its long axis. An open fracture is when there is a wound which has opened up. Physeal fractures are when the bone has broken at the growth plate or ephyseaal line. Spiral fractures break in a twisted or spiral break. Tranverse fractures are when the bone has broken on the axis at an angle or directly across the bone itself.

You can solve some of these problems through immobilization when you hold, suture or fasten a bone into a position which is fixed. Sometimes this is done with a bandage or a cast. You can use manipulation to realign the bone.  Sometimes you use another process to treat a bone. Amputation is when it is removed, but you can also fuse he joint or spinal vertebrae using an arthrodesis technique.

Meanwhile, muscles are sectioned into types. Skeletal muscles attach the bones to the body and help move the animal. Smooth muscles help operate the internal organs. Cardiac muscles involuntarily contract the heart muscle to pump blood in the system. Muscles are named for their function and location in the body. They are sometimes named also after their shape. You can diagnose muscles with an electromyography recording. The issues found among muscles normally are based off of the structure, weakness, abnormal growth, defective growth or control issues.  

I hope you have found this helpful I explain to them. I tell them I am willing to answer questions. 

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 16 The Importance of Food Safety and Security

Food security and food safety are both It is important to ensure food is safe to consume and illness is not spread. Each person has the right to a food which they can trust is safe and does not have any contaminants put there on accident or on purpose. The United States works hard to ensure there is enough food for everyone and it is safe. 
Food security is to make sure that the food people needs is available in the necessary quality. Each household as the food it needs. Everyone has the right to the food they need to survive and to be comfortable. They need food that is considered staples. The governments often make sure there are enough of these commodities available to the general population to ensure everyone is happy, healthy and secured of a good diet.
Food safety is to make certain the food is safe and there are no pests, chemicals, pathogens or other contaminants. When it comes to food security, you need to know how to prepare, process, use, secure and store food. This means that raw materials may not be contaminated with pathogens, cross contamination, microbes, allergens, foreign objects and other things that may taint the food and compromise its ability to be consumed. The location the food is made should be taken into consideration. The animals must be fed appropriately and be free of disease, pests and chemicals as well as medications. The proper withdrawal times should be observed for food animals.
Food defense is ensuring that food is not sabotaged or tampered with. This is to avoid malicious or criminal acts. This is to also ensure there are no terrorist acts. The United States Food and Drug Administration helps to monitor the food and cosmetic supply. The United States ensures that the food supply that comes into the country is monitored. There may be inspections, tests and more that go into making sure the food is viable and good for human consumption.
To examine this further, you could take for instance, the example of eggs, a commodity. The food security part of this example would be to ensure there are enough eggs available to a household. Each household needs to have enough eggs to have their needs met. This is important food source provides protein and should be available free of contaminants to the population in the necessary numbers. The food must be consumable. This moves onto the next aspect, of food safety which is to ensure the food has no microbes, pathogens, cross contamination, foreign objects, pathogens, pests, chemicals or other contaminants. There are steps such as employee training, equipment maintenance, food testing, microbe testing, proper storage, proper treatment, heat considerations and more that go into the keeping and processing of food. Food safety is to ensure the food supply is able to be consumed. Food defense is to make sure the eggs have not been tainted with poisons or other malicious or intentional attacks. This may involve careful monitoring of the food’s origin, security during the foods transport or other steps to ensure the food is not affected by those with malicious intent.

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 15

There are several things that may prevent or eliminate hazards but if these are not done, there might be some reasons why. I think that most people would easily do everything necessary to ensure that it is all done with the correct process. However, if there are reasons for it not to be done, there are some hang ups that some people might have. Some people might forget to complete files, documentation, training, surveillance, certification, appropriate supplies, compliance. Specifications, certification analysis and proper procedure and storage checks.
Delivery is a hard place to check problems and the items need to be properly stored. Some people may need to ensure they are going through approved suppliers to ensure that the product that they are receiving is of the appropriate quality. What the specific hazards are depend on what is being possessed. Since mold and growth of toxins may all be risks, microbiological hazards and the slaughter process needs to ensure that everything is kept safe. There should be no cross contamination and there should be the appropriate keeping of the environment in sanitary conditions. Management needs to be committed to ensuring that everything is seen over well. Educating the people who will later be receiving the product will help.
Documentation is important to help with discipline. Since the product needs to be cared for properly at each step,, the proper handling and the use of utensils and packaging should be trained to all employees. The temperature can be kept in logs. There can be system built o tenure that cook ties, periodic auditing, and whatever else can be done to ensure that the product is correctly handled in the correct timing and place. At each step there are certain things you should to do keep the product healthy and safe. Creating flow diagrams and an HACCP plan and sharing it with staff is going to be a good step.
Each step has safety requirements that need to be observed and they should be recorded on your record. There are some hazards and the considerations that should be done may also include making a list and educating staff on microbiological, chemical and physical hazards and where in the step they may occur. Logs and information that people should complete and  fill out to ensure the equipment is maintained and cleaned in an appropriate method and timing. Control measures can be enacted to help ensure that some of these hazards never come into play. Educating staff on these measures is vital.
Personnel is one of the hardest situations to handle since it may be difficult to do without h advanced training. However it could safe and there could be a training consultant that could help train the staff more effectively. Even once it leaves the producer, or you, and it is in the hands of the consumer, there are some things you need to consider such as when a customer may be expected to use a product for something other than its intended labeled use.

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 14

There are many ways that contaminants can happen. Food should be safe and there are many steps to ensure that this remains the case. There are allowable limits on some things in some products. Bugs fly into things, equipment can fail and more. This needs to foreseen. Regular maintenance of equipment as well as regular, scheduled checks should be done for equipment. Metal detectors should be used. Filters and screens are helpful to get rid of contaminants. The area should be kept clean and sanitized. Regular visual inspections should be conducted. The product should be tested to avoid chemicals and toxins.
Pathogens could arise, so temperature should be properly maintained product should be properly stored.. it should be tested, not be cross contaminated and it may be treated with heat or irradiation. Sanitation is vital to prevent the spread of pathogens. Cross contamination is prevented through proper cleaning Maintenance, employee training, care not to contaminates canning ingredient bar codes, using color coded utensils to designated products with  colors and covering packages properly help prevent cross contamination.
Staff should be properly trained to spot contaminants. They should know what to look for. This may mean knowing what tests to run. It could mean knowing how to properly clean or what sort of certification may be required to ensure that the human error possibilities are lessened or eliminated.
The employees and management should be trained on proper record keeping to ensure tests are done correctly and on time. There should be write ups detailing each step to ensure the proper steps are done to ensure everyone stays safe and healthy. To organize the staff, calendars and schedules should be used. Records should be kept and maintained. Dates should be kept of what was done and someone should ensure the products are properly scanned. This may be through a HACCP Team. The product and activities should be monitored. They should be verified to ensure they are correct. The consumer’s use and misuse should be determined and correctly organized and any repercussions should be foreseen with the tests and what should be done to prevent issues.
An HACCP Team can ensure that everyone does there best to ensure a safe final product. They will research sanitization techniques, how to fix certain products and how to test. They will put together the plan which will ensure everyone continues to follow a safe, good guide on ensuring healthy safe food. This may mean that each employee undergoes training and the HACCP Team may include this in their information.
An HACCP plan should be in place, and there should be designated team that is well rounded in the required subjects. This is to ensure all aspects are handled. The employee training is important. Hazard analysis is vital to ensure safety. Raw materials may have hazards, as well as there being biological, chemical and physical risks. These should be analyzed and employees should be trained a proper HACCP plan will help address issues. Each step to ensure safety ensures the consumer can be confident in a food that will not cause harm.

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 13 - Critical Control Points

The critical control points are to ensure that all the safety hazards are eliminated, prevented or within acceptable limits. A critical control point is a procedure, step or point which can be applied to control the risk. The team must thoroughly go through each step and correctly identify the correct critical control points. It needs to be precise to ensure that the process is effective and correct. It is best to brainstorm and go through a structured method when analyzing hazards. A good step once you have done the process flow diagram and it has been done and verified is to move onto the hazard analysis.
 In the process flow diagram, you determined stages where there could be contamination. Contaminations can be chemical, physical or pathogens. IN the Hazard Analysis Chart, the process step is further detailed. Here, the hazard and source or cause, the likelihood and severity as well as whether or not it is a significant hazard and what the control measures are all outlined. Next, the process should be analyzed with ha variety of quest ions which are outlined on 6.5.2 in the text, but are not exhaustive. They walk you through the process, helping to further identify issues. When detailing, the information should include as many specific names as possible in regard to pathogens and how they develop and either become toxic, create toxins or infect.
Control points are important by ensuring the pathogen does not get introduced to the consumer. This means that there are control points before you even get to the critical control point. This is to create a web to ensure safety. CCP decision trees are used to ensure that the process is consistently identified and organized to ensure that each step can be directly handled. As a producer for my example, goat milk, since it is a raw product before it is processed, it will likely require a “certificate of analysis” when being distributed to restaurants, caterers or more to prove it does not contain pathogens. This is to ensure the safety to the consumer and to let the person receiving your product know it has been tested to be free of contamination.
What the significant hazards are and how you will address it are important or critical control points. Addressing cross contamination issues is also vital to address. Addressing the appropriate questions and how they can be answered are important. Such as whether or not you can eliminate certain issues, or if there are acceptable forms of contamination or not. A food safety program should be outlined that should progress the entire time the product is being managed by the company and information on preservation or correct storage provided to the consumer. The type of critical limits are important to outline. This may include microbiological limits. The critical limits should then be valdated to prove the critical control points are being effective.  If they do not pass the validation they should be changed to accommodate. There should be testing to ensure safety.

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 12 - Goat Milk Sample Prerequisite Program

The two prerequisite programs I selected for the goat milk are sanitation and Maintenance and Pest Control. This means, that the assessment will be done and it will be to minimize a scenario that one hopes will be unlikely to happen. This will be to cover the other aspects of the production that may not be covered. This could be the cleaning process of equipment, cleaning all portions of equipment and all sections of it. It could also refer to the cleaning of the product itself. This may refer to the sanitary cleansing, which would be through heat, such as through proper collection and processing through heat, to eliminate pests. This could also be covered in reducing pests on the animals themselves, to reduce the chance of contracted diseases that may make the consumer ill.
The personal should monitor the program and records should be generated and inspected by personnel regularly. This prerequisite program minimizes contaminants. By cleaning equipment and keeping the animal in clean, sanitary conditions as well as immunizations and regular  care of the animals, they are able to minimize issues through both programs. Animals should be tested to ensure they are free of diseases and pests as well as be properly tended by a veterinarian when necessary. They should have their health monitored. When processing milk or collecting, all tubes, jars and other collection material should be properly sanitized with food-appropriate products. There are many things to think about. They should observe maximum hygiene, even understanding that non-porous surfaces, fabric, windows, doors ect can all present potential contaminants. Personal hygiene is vital.
Surfaces should be clean, and appropriate for use. They should be able to be properly sanitized. Easy to inspect, clean and maintain products are vital. There are some companies that need to have self-draining production surfaces. This would be one to ensure proper cleaning. Yu also cannot have any airborne issues, so the air should be cleaned. The lighting should be appropriate to make sure the objects and equipment as well as product can be properly monitored. Water must be potable so it does not taint the product when cleaning. Products should be selected and should be food-viable.
Each product should have information on specifics such as how to handle and use the product, how to properly maintain the equipment Howe to use the equipment and the use of appropriate equipment that can bel cleaned is important. There should be screens on windows to prevent contamination. Also, cross-contamination of products is vital, and can be both from food, traffic and air flow,, so raw ingredients and raw products need to be separated. There should be properly maintained cleaning activities and segmentation between unclean equipment to prevent cross-contamination if necessary. This could mean a different room all together. The floors, walls and tools all need to be constructed of an easily cleaned product. Samples should be taken of the milk to ensure it is free of disease or pests. And there should be appropriate storage of the milk. The grounds need to be kept clean and kept free of pests. Cleaning helps keep down pests, but so does the use of sanitization-proper equipment. The screens will help keep outside pests out.

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 11 - Goat Milk

Food: Goat Milk
My mom owns a goat farm, so I wanted to put together a presentation for milk from a goat since that is her primary production. 
Animals can pick up pathogens and pass them on to humans. Some bacteria, molds and viruses reproduce in food. Some create toxins.  Some meat goats may be dairy goats as well. This means that some of the stuff that may not pass in the milk, may pass on to a human through the meat. Raw and improperly pasteurized milks can pass on diseases and parasites to the person consuming it. Brucellosis (Bang’s Diseases) is caused by Brucella melitensis in goats. You can also get Chlamydiosis (Enzootic abortion) from Chlamydophila abortus. Johne’s disease, or Paratuberculosis, is from Mycobacterium avium subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP). Listeriosis (Circling disease) which is inflicted by Listeria monocytogenes (LM) can be passed on in raw milk too. Coxiella burnetii can invoke Q fever (Queensland fever). Toxoplasmosis which is from Toxoplasma gondii can also be passed on in milk. Bacteria and molds reproduce in mediums such as milk. Giardia, cryptosporidium and cyclospora can all come from raw milk and even drinking water which has been contaminated and can get into animals.
When protozoa are in the intestine, they may resist chemicals after being passed through then feces and can be consumed again by animals. Even using contaminated water in pesticides as used as an example where Cyclospora was a vector for a parasite. Prions are disease causing abnormal proteins that initiate abnormal folding of the prion proteins already in the brain. IT makes holes in the brain tissue. Scrapie, a sheep disease for instance was [passed to cattle that consumed Scrapie infested bone meal. A similar problem could cause an animal such as a goat to be ill. Contaminated meat from cattle entered the food chain, so it is important to watch out for this.
Animals should be kept in clean conditions appropriate to their species. They should maintain good fat ratio and health. They should be regularly kept free of pests and any medications should be allowed the proper withdrawal period before consuming milk. They should be properly immunized. Feces should be removed regularly. Feed should be free of contaminants and fed off the ground.
There is a cleanliness to be observed when milking. All food items should be properly disinfected before use. Teats should be disinfected before milking, but the entire udder should not be cleaned to prevent bacteria dripping into what is being collected. A disinfectant teat dip may be used.
Once harvested from the goat it should be properly stored. This means it should be refrigerated and immediately treated and used. The thermal process or heating process pasteurizes the milk. The control of hazards that re biological nature are important. Evaluate the intrinsic factors which are the parts of the food that effect microorganisms growing, such as bacteria or mold. Acidity may effect this,, in some cases, also sality, pH, preservatives , and how it is processed. A freezing treatment is not always enough to sanitize food.
Cross contamination is always a risk and all efforts should be maid to avoid this. Bacteria. Vegetative pathogens, spores, viruses, parasite and protozoan as well as chemicals can all affect the quality of food., They can make food dangerous. Certain chemicals and medications are not approved for use on food animals. Off label use is done when animals are put onto medications that food animals do not normally use, and this is particularly important to observe medications or chemical withdrawal periods.
Marine toxins usually won’t be a risk for a goat person, but my mom is buying a house by the ocean and maybe she will keep some of the goats there. Toxic dinoflagellates ,l diatom, bacteria or more could be imbibed by a goat.
When shipping and when prepared for use, it should always be properly refrigerated and stored. I think by observing each of these steps the concerns have been adequately and powerfully addressed. I would avoid using heavy metal contaminating items to store the milk. I think these will adchicve zero risk, or as close as you can get and still use milk.Cleaning of the milking tools should be thoroughout and free of potential chemical or physical contaminants.

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 10

The effects of an animal disease outbreak in the United States or internationally, could have far reaching and devastating results. People would be less trustworthy of the food sources, putting our trust in food at risk. People would get sick, some would potentially die. It could spread to other people in some cases. The environment is affected by humans. We can do things that are more kind to the environment than others. Food uses a lot of energy to create. There are a lot of steps on the way, and many of those steps can be contaminated. It is simpler to prevent a hazard rather than to have to deal with the consequences of an outbreak. Microbial, chemical, radiation and physical hazards all need to be monitored and considered. Whether it is cattle raised on a farm, chickens in a coop, fish in the fishery or wheat in a field, the food needs to be kept healthy, pest and disease free. This means there should be a food safety system in place and in practice. 
If it made it out of the country, it would reflect badly on the United States. HACCP methods help mitigate issues and prevent outbreaks. Food safety practices are being adopted by governments and this ensures the food is safe even across country borders. There is a mutual agreement that the trading country will have a set of standards equivalent to the country they are trading with before completing the trade. The International Organization for Standardization makes volunteer international standards for 162 countries and it is based in Switzerland with over 19,500 internationally accepted standards. These are considered good rules to go by to ensure the meat supply remains healthy. The meat could go to another country and be harder to track and may make people very sick. Some people may be more equipped than others to withstand the rigors of disease, contaminants or illnesses.
If there is something found to be wrong it could reflect in media issues and the brand being seen as a bad company. It could seriously cost issues and damage sales. We are always learning more about what can cause an out break or make people sick. Proper storage of food, in particular meat and other perishables is important. Educating the consumer on how to safely prepare the food is important. There should be regular testing and standardization. The tests are best done through a variable sample since we cannot test 100%. It has bankrupted companies and impacted hundreds more. It costs a huge amount of money and makes people ill. 
When examining what takes place before the animal makes it to slaughter, it is very important to consider the health and condition of the animal. Pre-harvest controls should be set in place with good management being there to make interventions when necessary. For instance, reducing fecal shedding is important and the animals should be kept in a clean environment. Some more techniques used may be probiotics, vaccines, chemicals/viruses to target specific bacteria and more. There should be all efforts to reduce contaminations, including medicines by observing the proper withdrawl time and chemicals. Animals should be kept in areas free of disease and contaminants. Tests and screens may be necessary. The animals should be verified as clean by an inspector pre-slaughter. Once the animals is harvested, it should be appropriately and immediately packaged or stored. 

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 9

There are many places in the food chain where food can be tainted. The animals consuming the food can ingest it. It can grow on the food, or on plants. It can be tainted also at harvest, during processing, transportation, storage and when being used by the end consumer. Some areas are more susceptible, as are some crops/animals. It can reduce the quality of plant and animal products and interfere with reproduction. Aflatoxins have been found in a variety of human foods. There are many things that should be properly stored to prevent fungus. Products like nuts, rice, pecans, spices, cassava and figs have a lot of AFBI and may be more dangerous. It can be dangerous and is toxic,
Some fungi travel through the food chain. It can be very dangerous, such as with Ochratoxin A which is very toxic and can harm many animal species. It can also cause cancer. Research on humans finds that it can lead to cancer and tumors. It can be found in some humans milk and kidneys when it is particularly prevalent. Exposure is dangerous and can leave irreversible effects on humans. Some toxins are heat resistant, some are resistant to stomach acids. It can put animals off feed and cause problems among livestock. Getting some of them under control can be a huge undertaking, as the microscopic spores could be anywhere. Sick animals reduce income to growers as do plants that are not thriving. High vet bills and increased money to help sick plants may also result. Some contaminants are dangerous. Epidemics have been caused and many people have died from ergots in grain for instance.
Preventing the taint and controlling the spread are the best ways to keep it under control. Prevent formation of the toxins from the very beginning. Food should be collected and stored properly. Quality control is vital. The grain should be properly dried. Mold inhibitors may be used. Analysis should be fun on the food. Good farm management is important. Foods which are minimally packaged or “fresh” Should be properly examined.
Food should be properly heated and maintained at the correct heat. Food should not be given the chance to develop toxins. Spores should be destroyed and if necessary eliminated from the environment. Food should be properly stored and if it is being treated for long term storage, the packaging, heat, heat maintenance, proper chemical balance and more should be maintained.
Some products like Honey have even been found with traces (Nevas).  Using supernatant filtration (SF) they found traces of C. botulinum/g. This could have been during production or storage. Collection can also taint it. It is prevalent in the environment.  Milk, eggs, meat, and more, including derivitives, may be contaminated. Each step needs to be carefully monitored. It is found that more developed countries are safer than other countries due to food control. There is regulation and food control. Grains may be infected and the production of the toxin can be devastating in the host once introduced from the food source. When brewing or making cheese the process is very precise and everything must be completely sanitized before use.
High prevalence of Clostridium botulinum types A and B in honey samples detected by polymerase chain reaction International Journal of Food Microbiology (Links to an external site.)Volume 72, Issues 1–2 (Links to an external site.), 30 January 2002, Pages 45–52. Marie Nevas. (Links to an external site.)
Mycotoxins in the Human Food Chain. Galvano, Fabio. Jan 2005.

Food Safety and Security: Discussion 8 Staphylococcal food poisoning

Although the CDC records staphylococcal food poisoning as a bacterial infection, it can also be labeled a chemical intoxicant. Even though chemical etiology accounts for 4.7-7.3% of foodborne disease outbreaks from 1988 to 1992 in the United States, however, since it is underreported (foodborne illnesses in general), it actually would closer to be 5-10%. Staphylococcal food poisoning is a result of intoxications resulting from bacteria which are forming on food. It is very common all over the world. Food containing a staphylococcal enterotoxin is consumed and causes intoxication quickly and it lasts a short while and does not have any lasting effects. Doctors are not usually told and therefore most cases go unreported. Dr. M.A. Barber indicated staphylococcal food poisoning caused by staphylococci in 1914.
Symptoms include diarrhea, retching, vomiting, abdominal cramps, faintness and nausea  1-6 hours after they consume it. Headache, prostration, fever and muscle cramps can also happen if it is severe. There have even been examples of the blood pressure going down dramatically in rare cases, In a few hours or a day, usually someone feels better. It will not usually fatal, but it has caused death in older individuals and children. Barber was able locate it and to test it on a couple of people, but in 1929, Dr. Gail M. Dack would discover more details with cakes! Due to improper storage, cream cake made 11 people ill with diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. Staphylococci were found in the cakes and grow in a lab. The toxins were separated by centrifuge and the toxin given to people which caused them to be ill. It was called an enterotoxin. This is because the gastrointestinal tract is affected. Fluids to restore electrolytes may help. 
There are nine types of enterotoxins. Its hard to determine how much someone got. It is also hard to gauge a reaction because everyone reacts differently and some are more susceptible than others. Although common, it is underreported, in fact, it is thought only 1-5% of cases are even reported. Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for mot outbreaks and is easy to tell apart. It contains coagulase and TNase. Some staphylococcus prefer a particular species or medium or condition. Individuals in the medical or hospital regions may have more contact with it since it cause boils and abscesses, , osteomyelitis, enterocolititis, infections, endocarditistoxic shock syndrome or scalded skin.
Appropriate heating and pasteurization are important. Freezing and thawing do not seem to effect S. aureus unless subfreezing, and then only reduced number of staphylococcal is observed. Drying does not kill the Staphylococci. There are enterotoxins A, B, C, D, E, G, H, I, and J (There is no F because toxic shock syndrome toxin was actually labeled F until it was discovered what it really was). There are still some enterotoxins which have not been identified. IN some people the enterotoxins can cause skin reactions, irritated eyes, sore throats, runny noses and blisters. They are considered superantigens and stimulate a lot of T cells.
The stomach is not acidic enough to break down the enterotoxin. They are also heat resistant. They are stable. It has been found in a lots of kinds of food. They are salt resistant. There are only certain ways it will grow though, and they have to take time to make the enterotoxin and be warm long enough. It has been implicated in many outbreaks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most common way to detect the enterotoxins but there are a variety of methods though their practicality varies. Proper preparation and storage of food is necessary. Good hygiene, proper handling of food and maintenance of the proper temperature is important to reduce the chances of growth. 
Although dosage is in itself important in general for toxins, it is difficult to determine how much someone got of it since staphlococci grows in colonies, produces the enterotoxin and it is microscopic. Since it takes only 1 ug for some individuals to get reactions to it, its difficult to determine dosaging effects.