Monday, March 7, 2016

Toxoplasmosis gandii: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and cancer

Toxoplasmosis gandii is a single celled parasitic protozoan which is an obligate intracellular parasite. It can infect warmblood animals. Felids are their primary host which allow them to sexually reproduce. It’s the most common parasite in countries which are still developing. This means that 30-50% of people throughout the world are infected, many of them chronically. In fact, 84% of the people in France are infected with this parasite. It has been shown that it has an effect on the brains of rats, and now they find it may affect humans as schizophrenia. It may affect humans in similar ways it affects rats. It goes through several life cycles:  Tachyzoites (multiply in a host), merozoites (multiply in a felid for sexual reproduction), bradyzoites (slow division into cysts) and sporozoites (within occysts). Exposure to felids, felid waste, felid waste in food, substrate, contaminated soil and more may get an animal sick, and a human as well!

By far my interest in is Toxoplasmosis gandii. This is primarily because I grew up with cats and despite the fact that most people do not test for this it  could be in a large population. It can be spread in contaminated food/meat, contaminated water, contaminated soil and it can be spread in feces. It operates in an interesting way and its effects are fascinating if not a little horrifying. Despite its effects on humans, many people don’t know about it. It is interesting that the younger/teenage group is what showed evidence of schizophrenia correlating with toxoplasmosis gandii antibodies being currently present and being around cats, and it had a lower appearance among adults in a 30 study review. In that same study though, half of the people showed a correlation to the parasite antibodies and to the current presence of cats.

I found the time of exposure to be of particular interest. Such as seeing the effects of congenital infection of the Zika Virus to be an indication of the effects of viruses and other pathogens on unborn children. Would this early exposure time, such as while still in the mother have an effect like this? We know that toxoplasmosis gandii can cause problems in pregnancies, in addition, its effects on post birth conditions and some other early conditions are documented in many kinds of animals. Scizophrenia is interesting, in that for some it may show up in someones 20’s, is  this an indication of infective age? Does this imply that some effects from a disease may take a certain amount of time for the parasite’s effects to show in a host, or is it only then that it manifests and it  could have been present in a host?

Learning that feral and neighborhood domestic cats use public sandboxes to defecate in may spread the disease. Worse of all, will it deliver the disease at a time which will effect children at a vitally developmental age for the brain. As we learn that the first five years are integral to brain development, does this give an indication of when some early brain issues could begin due to exposure? Surely this is supported by some of the potential findings. This is that early childhood exposure to cats is more likely to be a problem than adult ownership of cats. Are their early signs? I have several friends who are schizophrenic, and I know they all have early exposure to cats. Of course, cats are a common pet. Most people do not have them tested to see if they have toxoplasmosis gandii.

According to E. Fuller Torrey, Cats carring the parasite may risk infecting people with this parasite which he believes may be responsible for some cases of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Although they have a lifetime approved live vaccine for sheep called Toxovax (MSD Animal Health), there is no human vaccine. We countinue to see what effects it has, and it has been documented as giving issues to young children. IT can be passed congenitally, and has been well documented in sheep and rodents. The parasite was found in a cesarean section infant girl showing with seizures and  lesions. There are 17 known species of felids which can spread oocytes and they are the only creatures that can spread this way. According to some behavioral studies, it is found that it affects men and women differently when measured with the Cattell’s Personality Factor Questionnaire. In people who are immunocompromised, they may be vulnerable to Toxoplasmosis Gandii. In addition, if they become ill, it may reactivate tissue cysts, re-releasing the parasite once held at bay by a stronger immune system. As the immune system declines, the parasite reproduces and puts the individual at more risk. Or could it be the other way around?

There are some interesting correlations between brain cancer rates and toxoplasmosis gandii. In fact, the countries that are highest in toxoplasmosis gandii, are also highest in brain cancer rates, at 1.8 times more likely in the 37 countries studied, according to Discover magazine. This may be due to sanitization techniques, other illnesses, natural reproduction of pathogens, distribution of pathogens and vectors, the medical services available to people, as well as the technology available. Although this tells us there may be a correlation, we may not know what that is yet. However, since the parasite is known to affect the brain, it is something to consider.

Since the parasite prevents the cells from killing each other, and it also creates mild inflammation these are both hallmarks of cancer. This means it is potentially involved in the development for brain cancers. The parasite lives a long time in the brain, and it takes a long time for brain tumors to develop. American researchers found the most common glioma brain cancer, astrocytoma is very likely to have the parasite. This is contraindicative of Australian findings where they found the brain parasite meningioma is likely to have a link to the parasite.

Could it be subgroups of the parasite which are more likely to cause certain cancers depending on the parasite strain? Could certain parasites be prevalent in some regions rather than others? There are many infections known to cause cancer…is this another one? The EBV virus causes lymphomas, and HPV and Epstien Barr are also known to cause cancer. The problem with finding this correlation, is that it is expensive and difficult to prove with some information countering findings. Additionally there are about 120 types of brain cancers. There’s nothing yet to support these findings though, and they haven’t had much study.

For the most part, people who own cats are not more likely to have brain cancer. It comes from sources other than cats however, which makes the parasite difficult to trace. In fact, some studies show it may influence the destruction of some cancer. It stimulates cytotoxic T cells, used by the body to fight cancer (is that a sign on its own). This helps the body fight other cancers. CPS a Mutant version developed to fight cancer has promising results in animal trials and it cannot reproduce on its own.

“Avoiding Childhood Exposure to Cats with the the T. Gondi parasite may reduce schizophrenia risk”

Pet Theory. Do Cats Cause Schizophrenia? by Stephen Mihm. The New York Times Magazine on the Web.

Toxoplasmosis Gandii. Wikipedia.

A Report of Two Cases of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Leukemia Patients.

Is the parasite Toxoplasma gondii linked to brain cancer?
By Ed Yong | July 26, 2011

Good News: Your Cat Won't Give You Brain Cancer. Live Science.
by Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor   |   August 21, 2012 07:01pm ET

Could cat feces help cure cancer? Written by Honor Whiteman. Published: Sunday 20 July 2014.

Tuesday, March 1, 2016

Caregiving Services in the Business Place

Caregiving responsibilities are not just for those with children, but also those who need to help with an elder. People who have to help with both, are called the “sandwich generation” and often have to juggle work, parents and children. These needs stress the employee, and may lead to a variety of results such as increased absenteeism, health problems, substance abuse, stress, strain, less productivity and issues with job satisfaction. When an employer shows care and commitment to an employee’s personal life, it increases employee retention. Since it increases moral, lowers stress and increases productivity and work quality, it helps the company excel against competitors. When employees have to modify their work schedule or quality due to their other responsibilities, it causes hidden costs.

Many companies explore options to help allay these costs. Some companies provide flex time, child care support or elder care support. Some companies have job sharing agreements between employees. If this is done, there should be a division of work and goals must be measurable and set. Many employers do have cross-trained employees. Some have compressed work weeks. They may have a variety of options of leave (sick, family, personal and vacation). Sometimes, this is through telecommuting (not always an option in the veterinary services) or relocation policies if necessary.

Some companies provide benefits, such as flexible plans, tax benefits, insurance or employee assistance support. Some companies provide services such as education on caregiving, community involvement, resources on caregiving as well as some direct services (such as on-site care centers, adult day centers, subsidiaries, vouchers, discounts for care, respite, sick/emergency care, after school programs and concierge services). Employees should be trained to be family friendly and supportive. organization policy should be set and managers should be trained to be family friendly.

Understanding Staff

For Theory in a Business class we were asked to envision ourselves as supervisors and what would we do to learn more of employees...

I would begin by learning the names and details of the people I will be working with. I would make a detailed list of who I am working with, organize it into a structure and list information such as name, job position, specialized training and more. I have often studied what I can on a website regarding any employer or coworker before I begin working. this gives me a good, firm ground to understand what each of the employees can bring to the table. 

Knowing more about your own supervisors and what they do to contribute to the team is important. Learning everything is important. Learn how the management works, learn who to talk to about particular subjects and more. Learn about the company and any classes you can take. Understand and read the human resources information and keep it handy. Review personnel files, read resumes, reviews and gain an understanding of their goals. It is good to work out arrangements with a mentor to guide you through any issues that may arise. Since your new focus is getting others to succeed and the job is no longer focused just on you, you have to provide the tools for them to excel. This point should be about education.

Take the time to learn about others and find out what their goals are. You need to see what they need more training in order to excel. You have to ask them questions to find out where they want to go in their job. You need to ensure they will perform very well which will help you out in the long run. You must let them know that you are open to their opinions. They need to know you will listen. You should either have an open door policy or outline your office hours that they can meet with you. Find out what they like about their work and what they would like to change. Understand them and find out what you need to do to organize the team.

As a manager you should be on your best behavior, be well dressed and prompt. You should ensure that you don’t ignore your supervisor so you have to outline what you and the team want to do and how they relate to your boss. Meetings are important. you should have one meeting initially to help organize the team, and you should have meetings with the boss. Smile and greet everyone, develop a good working relationship. Ask questions that reveal what is important to their lives. Listen well and interact with them. Be positive and look forward to what you are working with..

Use positive comments. When people come to you with complaints and issues, make sure that you address them and listen to what they are saying so that their frustrations are brought to light. Make sure you know and understand what is good and effective in the workplace. Find out what people want in order to work hard. Some will be valued and feel validated when you issue praise. Work directly with the staff to understand what they are dealing with on a day to day basis. Finally, when you leave be cordial and say goodnight and ensure that you thank everyone. Have fun and make sure that you are working closely and positively with your staff.

Presenting Your Professional Skills

I would begin by providing a list of the classes and an overview of what the instruction was in a binder. I have printouts of much of what I have done work on, and I would be sure to include that, with a skills list. Today, many resumes have a skills section, but since the skills list is so long for a veterinary technician, it may be more appropriate to summarize them into sections. I would be sure to speak to the veterinarian and let them know of my skills.

I would take the initiative to volunteer to take over work when it is something I have been trained in. I would work out with the veterinarian what qualifies as “technical skills” that the technicians are trained in. This would help simplify the process.  Being present when needed and willing to help is vital. Effectively helping in as many situations as possible is important. It is good to provide documentation of your training, such as a class list, certificates and degrees. It is good to print out a “manual” of projects from training.

Technicians need a lot of training. Some skills must be demonstrated, while others need to have a hand’s on skill level. Technicians normally have training in office procedures, hospital procedures, pharmacy, pharmacology, nursing, anesthesia, laboratory procedures, imaging, laboratory animals, knowledge of surgical nursing and training in animal care and handling for a variety of species. I would read veterinary books and magazines to keep the information and training I have up to date. I would attend seminars and training events when possible and share my findings with the veterinarian and other staff if they were interested.

I would first organize all of this, and a private presentation with the veterinarian if possible. It would be an opportunity for me to discuss what I can help with and what specialized skills I have training in and can work with. When presenting to the veterinarian, I would be sure to have all the information organized so the meeting goes quickly and effectively with a good impact. Knowing that veterinarians are busy, I would provide as much information as quickly as possible without overwhelming. Providing a potential list of how it would monetarily affect businesses may be helpful.

Workplace Bullying

Bullying and horizontal violence need to be addressed by all members of the workplace. If I should witness something like that, I would stick up against the bully. If someone were to gossip, I would walk away. I understand that I should communicate with management so I would do that immediately. I would offer my skills to the employee to help them learn

There should be a workplace culture that supports the staff. If there are issues that allow the horizontal workplace to exist, they must be eliminated. It should first be recognized and acknowledged that there is such violence occurring. The management should be encouraged to continuously integrate the culture of cooperation and if there are any issues of horizontal workplace, they should be addressed. To ensure this is possible, I would communicate if I see any issues. There should be ways for staff member’s to effectively communicate what is happening to them. It would be management’s responsibility to post a statement addressing how people should act. All members of the staff should be talked to by the management to see that they understand the issues and that any occurrences are addressed. All staff should be provided the same opportunities to learn and grow. Staff should also be provided training on how to eliminate lateral violence.

Understanding that these are some of the basic guidelines, and what kinds of issues could happen from horizontal workplace, I would strive to do what I could to help resolve the issue/. I would name the issue, such as using the term “horizontal violence” in reference to the situation. Raising the issues at staff meetings may break the silence, allowing people to come forward. Asking the workplace if they have a method for handling the issue is important. If they do have a method, there should be a distribution of information. It has even been recommended to journal the situation. It is important to keep track of problems and how it is mentally affecting me and the other staff.

As a staff member, I could help reduce problems in this way by speaking up when I witness it, naming it for what it is and being supportive to the other staff. This can be as simple as counseling, peer support, meditation, exercise and more. To help with other staff, I could provide myself as a willing listener. It would be helpful in some situations to assist management by providing information. This can be simple enough, such as providing tips, such as what to do in the event of horizontal violence. Management should be made aware of the issues that can be caused from horizontal violence. If the violence is prevalent in the business, and it may be inflicted by management, then information must be addressed so that they understand how dangerous it is.

There are many problems and issues that can be expected from lateral violence. It could be high staff turnover, errors, low productivity, low self esteem and/or morale, disconnection, depression, insomnia or sleep disorders, anxiety and issues with relationships and more. These issues may even lead to memory dysfunction and activation of the brain’s circuit breakers. This could result in a perpetual form of disassociation which can cause forgetfulness and speechlessness. There are many aspects to how someone can react to the flight or fight response. Many people fear speaking out because they may be the next target or their job may be at risk. Post Traumatic Stress can also result.

I should also tend to myself, by ensuring that my needs are met. I can help reduce stress in myself through peer support, good nutrition, time out, sleep, meditation, massage, meditation and more. Self-caring behavior helps to reduce stress. I can manage myself in a self-aware way, helping to reduce any issues that could result from my activities. Counseling may be important and can be helpful support. I would want to gain confidence in my veterinary skills so I would read veterinary texts and manuals.

Management needs to be aware of the signs of workplace horizontal violence. Creating groups or cliques, gossip, intimidation, manipulation, harassment, exclusion and other ways of making someone feel bad are all signs. If there is a lack of respect, it goes into a downward spiral. Employees may react angrily and lash out at their co-workers. Empowering employees often helps direct them and gives them more morale. This helps everyone to get along and may take the stress off other employees. When you go to speak to employees, you should be proactive by documenting violent situations and schedule a private meeting. If I were to witness such a situation, I would mention this to the person who received the violence and I would tell them to give specifics. They should be encouraged to leave emotions out of it, and only to detail direct facts.  

Pets as Presents

Pets as presents can be a good idea or a bad idea, depending on the potential pet owner’s experience, financial strength, health, commitment, desire/need/interest and more. Animals take a lot of time and money to support and some of them are more expensive than others and take more maintenance. Some animals are more appropriate than others for particular people or locations. I know people who have gotten every imaginable pet as a gift, sometimes it works out, and sometimes it does not. I have heard lots of stories of people who have given up cats, dogs, rabbits, birds and more because they lack one or more of the requirements of responsible pet owners.

It is best to ask a few questions of the person who will be getting the gift. You should bring up the time it takes to take care of a pet, the costs (food, health, grooming, pet care, veterinary care, boarding/housing etc). Some pets like fish or reptiles have special conditions (substrate, medications, vitamins etc.) that need to be met to remain healthy. It is a commitment, and you should discuss if the person getting the animal will be able to tend to the animal for the entirety of its life. The animal should match the lifestyle of the owner. Going over boarding, housing, special keeping conditions, dietary needs and more all fall into this category to some degree or another and will help determine if it is a good idea to get a pet as a gift. It is harder to keep a horse in the city, and most people won’t keep an outdoor iguana in a cold location unless they have special care facilities.

I have always found it best to talk to the person you will give the animal to. It should not be a surprise. It should not be a “replacement for a passed pet” when one has passed recently unless the owner is looking for a new companion. Sometimes getting a new pet when you are not ready can be emotionally hard and may cause some resentment. They also should understand it is a completely new animal with its own health, personality and history, distinct from the prior pet.

Remind the person of the needs the animal will have including accessories and basic necessities. Let them know that they may find the finances a little easier, and their heart a little lighter if they adopt a shelter pet rather than get a new one from the pet store or breeder. Saving a life is always important! Don’t forget they may have to invest in training or behavioral care of some sort. Encourage them to vaccinate, microchip and provide the animal the best life, sometimes that means getting someone a pet, and sometimes that means you are buying someone a stuffed animal.

Marine Mammal Protection act

The Marine Mammal Protection act provides protection to marine mammals. There are rehabilitation center sand rescue centers for marine mammals. Each area helps different species depending on what kind of animals are local to the region. The animals must be treated with care yet not handled much so they do not attach to humans. Staff and volunteers need to help the animals but may not handle them much. Last year, I rented and watched a video on marine mammal rehabilitation. In the video, they showed the slurry fed to the animals and showed the feeding progression just as detailed in the text. It was interesting.

Animals and Society: Feminist Ethics

I agree that the feminist ethic is more effective over the Cartesian ethic for the animal case. This is primarily because of the basics of the opinions of both lines of thought. I think since the feminist point of view takes more factors into consideration this is important. I think the more holistic, loving attitude of feminism holds better with the care and consideration of animals.
Cartesian logic sees animal and human bodies as machines. They try to take a open view trying to simply be logical. The feminist ethic may be more caring with a focus on the culture in the regards of caring and love. Cartesian Objectivism has justified animal abuse whereas the universal feminist view is gentler and with a less abusive history and past. Socially and emotionally complex, animals develop relationships that are strong and last. It emphasizes the qualities labeled as masculine in some ways.
Feminism may provide a more ethical kind point of view. Humans and animals have rights. It has the right to be happy and comfortable. Utilitarian animal rights may be more variable. Since in Cartesian point of view, there is not a whole distinction between humans and animals, these rights may be more ethical coming from a feminist ethic which may be more considerate of the animal.
Men have been known to exercises control over humans and animals that is less than kind. For the most part, many of the cruelties done to animals and women may be caused by men more often than women. Women have even been regulated and been used or compared to animals in some way. This dynamic is unique and puts women in a more unique position to emphasize the qualities of animals and their needs. Animals and women have been treated badly in the past, both have been treated as objects and a form of producer. Women have often looked into the Cartesian view and criticized the view of animals which mentions animals as “dead matter” and they were not thinking emotional creatures.

Animals and Society: Shelter Workers

My opinion did not really change. However, I did learn more about what they are handling or dealing with. I have considered shelter workers rather innocent and forced into the position. They are indeed there to ensure that the job is done. Many of them feel guilt as indicated by their actions and perspective which was shared in the text. I think that many people surrender animals for a variety of reasons. I don’t’ necessarily blame the person who is euthanizing them, but they are in the job as a position. They are willingly holding the position. For many it’s a guilty, stressful situation. People often give up companion animals and they care therefore the person conducting the euthanasia usually cares and may hold it against the person doing the surrender that they need to put the animal down.
I don’t think shelter worker would be a good job for me. It is a good job, with good pay, but its not the same as fulfilling your inner ideal. I want to help animals, for myself this would not be as helpful as other positions, although these are the positions normally available through county or city services. Government jobs are usually valued, however, this is a stressful guilt filled job. You often see these positons available which may be because of the stress and guilt making high turnover. IT could also be because more people may be surrendering animals.
Some people are homeless, some run out of money, lose jobs or lack the ability to care for an animal financially, emotionally or physically. Some animals get sick others get old, and many of these may be surrendered because the person thinks they cannot afford the animal and think that the person may be better off giving the animal up and it could potentially be saved by someone. This would certainly cause some workers to be upset. Some may see the reasoning, others may be less open in their judgment.
They may put the blame on the surrendered, this may be to help prevent emotional damage, allay guilt, and to this end there will e apologies, absolutions, justifications and excuses. People surrendering animals may blame adoption agencies for not getting homes. There are some that justify since the animal could not be kept as it was used to being, death would be more acceptable. Shelter workers blame others, often the surrendered. The surrendered often blames others too. Some blame the victim, as cited earlier about how the animal wanted to be kept, although this had not been substantiated. Sometimes animals are put down because they are not correctly potty trained, or have what the owner sees as a behavioral issue.

Animals and Society: Effects of Animal Assisted Therapy

I think that being with animals is very important and a part of human development. Humans have had animals a long time. At one point, in several cultures, the dependency was high. I know people who use dogs to guard, as watch dogs, co-workers, partners, friends, pets, family or even as a companion to assist in every day activities. It reduces anxiety, creates social support and other benefits that may directly help with increasing a one0year survival after a myocardial infarction. This is a powerful modifier that should be further looked in to. The animals that help us in our every day life are very important. Humans find that interacting with animals have many health benefits. This affects people in a variety of ways. There could be several reasons for this happening, which may be through altering psychosocial risk factors. Since the socialeconomic profiles of owners and non-owners were similar, other features were examined. It was found that pet owners had received perceptible and measureable health benefits. According to studies, analyzed risk factors revealed pet owners were exercising more but eating out more. However, their  systolic blood pressures, triglycerides and plasma cholesterol were lower. Pet owners were found to live a year longer. Further study indicates the horse rider finds themselves flexible and stronger. Horseback riding puts you in a better mood. Reduce high blood pressure by petting a cat. New studies indicate interacting with a dog makes you need up to 50% less pain medication (Blake Clinic) when recovering from a surgery.
Cortizol is a stress hormone which has repercussions on your health and may be indicated through certain disorders or diseases. Animals assisted therapy helps to reduce this stress hormone reaction. Oxytocin and dopamine are healthy and good hormones to have in your system. Interacting with animals increases dopamine and oxytocin. Animals have proven to be helpful to many people in many ways. Some animals help people with everyday tasks, some are pets, others are income generating animals while others are work-animals. Despite studies, they have had a limited impact on the scientific study of the subject. This may be a result of the lack of asking this on a questionnaire.
This means to me, that further research would certainly pay off. It would improve investigation into the area and really make sure that people understand animals provide a valuable asset to all of us. I think that animals are a vital part of everyone’s lives in many ways. We may eat from them, live with  them, see them every day or wear objects made from their textiles. I think that leaing more about animals and how they affect humans is important to understanding ourselves better. I think it helps to understand how animals affect us for our sake as well.
I would recommend people keep pets. It encourages them to exercise and to enjoy animals more. There are health benefits to be had! There are some people that having animals for may not be the answer. Some people don’t know how to take care of an animal. Other people may gain confidence, empathy, strength, health, live longer, live more productive, stress free lives. Animals help us in a variety of ways, and recognizing how much we are intertwined with the many species of this world helps us recognize their value to this world. It is not just in how you can use, eat, or use the products created by an animal. All milk, eggs, leather, pets, companions, coworkers and riding partners aside, animals are deserving of the recognition.

Animal Assisted Therapy: How Pet Therapy Works

Carrier Clinic (Links to an external site.) Blake Clinic.

Animals and Society: Profit and Oppression

I think it is certainly possible for companies to think that way and to enact a more humane treatment of animals. I don’t know that numbers can speak that way, to indicate how this would effect the business (since morality does not always accrue currency directly). I am not sure how effective it would be at measuring it. If we came up with a system which allowed for the kind care of animals included in the “corporate information” that could be a start. I think that helping to bring awareness of what parts come from animals, and a concern from where things are originating from. Being familiar with a source helps track this down, knowing where you get the animal based resource, and being familiar with where things are coming from and the process. In general, having everyone be more educated will help give some insight as to concern for people that may move past just a desire for profit. Either way, education will sway some individuals.
I think there are several ways in which people can help look into the safety of animals in production. California, for instance, has laws that limit how you care for some livestock. There are strict regimens on food regulation and medicine regulation which require that the produce should be guaranteed safe. Some of these laws can be expanded to include more inclusive and good care for animals. Education is one thing that helps, for instance, there are resources that are usually local and free to help educate the public and corporations. I think even just helping others to know this may lead to a greater understanding of good animal care.
I think that education may be one of the only ways to help expand peoples awareness of how animals should be treated and how they feel. Although some may be deeply ingrained, there is a growing awareness of other animals and how they think, act and feel. It is true, that in the past, humans have had a tendency to oppress other parties, but I think now we are beginning to see an exponential growth in human awareness of other animal thoughts and feelings. Anthropocentric views are ingrained in many people, but I think that this is once again, beginning to adapt. Its not just anthropocentric views that flavor human opinions though. As the text mentions, racism, sexism, elitism and capitalism have all effected animal lives. Among various other factors, these close-minded views have begun to loosen. As we explore science, we lean more about the animals and how each one is phenomenal in its own way.

Animals and Society: speciesism versus racism

here are some major similarities and differences between speciesism versus racism. First of all, this is specifically referring to slavery under some of the circumstances. In slavery as seen in the United States, which is considered racial, but it contained members of many cultures and races. The similarities are that both parties had restricted freedom of movement. There was a loss of social freedoms and choices. They experienced the pain of loosing someone who was close to them, such as a family member or lover. They have been hunted, tormented and injured. They are both objectified. They are treated as property, as if they do not have feelings., as if they are not individuals. They have been physically defeated. They have been mentally defeated. They represent that any oppression encourages other forms of domination. It make s another party “oppressible.” 
The slavery dynamic is still seen in animals, but the similarity between early United States slavery treatment and animal treatment has varied. It actually took some time to adapt the human to respect both parties well at all. Both parties had, at one point, and in some cases, been put into sexual slavery (including forced breeding) and a variety of forms of other work, like transportation, ploughing, agriculture and more. They have born chains, both have received abuse from humans, they may be harmed and their views are seldom considered. The treatment of slaves in America and other regions varied just as the treatment with animals. Culture seems to impact the reaction to both situations. 
As for differences, there are many and they really make you think of who is being affected, how long, why and to what degree. Animals are experimented on in labs, they go in factory farms, are kept as pets, suffer in the wild or are abused. There are humans that are oppressed, but those are primarily regional or on a smaller scale, simply because there are more animals of all species. Many of them are abused, or are “enslaved.” Many of them go through sexual slavery (breeding) to this day, which is rarely seen among human interaction and serves a different purpose sometimes.” 
For the most part human slavery was focused on a racial, sexual or class specific role. This was sometimes people force-imported from Africa, but it included people from many regions, including indigenous Americans. However, the slavery of animals crosses species barriers and pretty much is open to anything but a human. Automatically not being human gives you less rights in this view. And, on top of that, it is considered that animals are lesser, have no rights, are less intelligent, are able to be killed. It was a rare thing to kill a human. Slaves were treated badly, and there were cases where it happened, but for the most part, they were not made into stew like the lamb. Some animals are made and bred to be killed. 
Humans have people fighting oppression everywhere, and some people who defend those who are oppressed, but it does not always help. The same holds true when petitioning for human rights, and though now we have grown wise to what humans are and that we are all one big family, we have yet to accept animals into our family. The bias toward mammals or toward land-dwelling beings is present in some humans. Some humans have NO respect for fish, for instance, or for squid, or octopuses. Everyone has a different opinion, but we don’t treat humans like animals are treated, and though there were similarities, most of the time, humans were kept under better conditions. Sometimes though, they were kept caged, chained, in mass confinement, in bad conditions, in the cold, or in filth. Animals are still kept in these conditions, humans are not. Some processes, like the veal production process are cruel. Some people point out foie gras is cruel. We use cruel equipment and treatments that are still used on animals in our domination of them. Currently, animals still are being oppressed. 

Animals and Society: Animals as Surrogates

Women who are suicidal due to their abusive relationships may live longer and try to live for their pets (Fitzgerald). Animals are supportive and in some cases keep them together and kept them going through abusive situation. Social support was given by pets. They did not end their lives because they were loving to their pets. They provided unique social support to abused women, providing a barrier against suicide. The importance of pets to prevent the loss of life should be recognized (Fitzgerald). They are protective, companions, family members, surrogate family and more. THey provide security, in some cases literally, jumping out to protect someone. They provide mental strength by being a listening here, a helping paw and a friend. The animal can also be a surrogate child, work companion, worker, guardian, companion, friend, exercise partner, competitor and more. People enjoy animals in a variety of settings. They can be coworkers even. Sometimes they are your survival. They can be allies when there are few other people around.

In International Handbook of Animal Abuse and Research: A Sociological Analysis of Animal Abuse, Clifton P. Flynn recognizes the human-animal bond as being vital. Animals provide a place of defiance for animals. There is also a dark side, humans abusing animals. Sometimes people are inconsistent with opinions toward animals. Sometimes this may lead to periodic abuses. Some people enjoy exercising their power over animals, and in some cases also women.  Animals may be seen as children or as family members by some people. They may stay in abusive relationships to prevent harm to an animal. Protective animals may be killed by an abuser.

When I was running a children’s program a few years ago, a woman we had worked with came up saying that someone was claiming her dog. Long story short, we found that a woman had been kidnapped in the area. She had been held hostage for a year underground. She had been lured out through the internet and was knocked out and drugged for a long time. She had brought her dog out. The dog tried to protect her one night while she was being tortured. The man struck the dog on the head until “dead” with a shovel. It was done in front of her, when he then told her he would do the same to her unless she continued to submit to his perversions. The dog was buried in the back. Later in the year, she was able to break out and get to help. When the police came she was saved.
She had no possessions though, everything she had was taken, so she stayed in the area. Later, she saw the dog, which it turns out, had been her dog. The woman who found the dog said she had discovered it covered in mud. It had been very sick and she nursed it back to health. The dog was never very healthy after that. However, the woman who had survived said it was her saving grace that he lived. She lets the family keep the dog since the dog’s finder’s son is deeply attached, but the prior owner has visiting rights. She related that she was fearful for the dog. She had lost hope when the dog died but still took her first opportunity for escape.

“They Gave Me a Reason to Live”: The Protective Effects of Companion Animals on the Suicidality of Abused Women. Amy J. Fitzgerald (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)
International Handbook of Animal Abuse and Research: A Sociological Analysis of Animal Abuse. Clifton P. Flynn. Univeristy of South Carolina Upstate.

Animals and Society: Effects of Childhood Animal Cruelty

There are many individuals who harmed animals then later began to harm humans. There are many examples of those who hurt animals a child before they began to harm humans. As mentioned there was Jeffrey Dahmer and Albert Disalvo (aka the Boston Strangler) who both harmed animals before harming humans. To add to this list, there are several more, and in fact, it is generally regarded as a known occurrence for serial killers to be violent to animals in youth. Carroll Edward Cole, killer of 35, related that when he was a child he strangled a puppy as his first violent act. Edmund Emil Kemper killed neighborhood cats and displayed their heads on poles. He murdered and dismembered his own cat. Later, he would go on to kill eight women, one of which was his own mother.
Andrew Cunanan, murderer of five, used to gouge the eyes of crabs with matches as a child. Dennis Rader learned to blind, torture and kill on animals before moving on to humans. He later became known as the BTK Killer. David Berkowitz, the Son of Sam, shot his neighbor’s dog. He believed that God was the one instructing him to kill. Lee Boyd Malvo used to torture small animals and later became one of the DC Sniper team that killed ten in Washington DC. Brenda Spencer, who shot into a crowd of children and killed two, used to light the neighborhood cats’ and dogs’ tails on fire. Ted Bundy was a unique example. He actually was there when his father tortured small animals. Bundy learned from this and would eventually abuse animals and later kill 40 people. Other individuals who were serial killers that harmed animals early in their lives were Richard Chase and Gary Ridgeway.
School shootings have also had those who have harmed animals first. Some of the purpetrators shot dogs, set cats on fire, mutilated animals, blew up cows or killed small animals. These school shootings include: Pearl, Mississippi; West Paducah, Kentucky; Jonesboro, Arkansas; Littleton, Colorado; Conyers, Georgia; San Diego, California; Springfield, Oregon; Columbine, Colorado.
Its not just something done by people who are mass shooting or that are serial killers though. Students in a Missouri high school who had killed another student admitted to animal abuse. One of the three said he had killed so many cats he had lost count. The two brothers who murdered their parents, informed classmates that they had killed a cat.
There are some who hurt neighborhood animals, others hurt their own pets or family pets, while yet other people harmed wild animals. I do think that the illness(es) that may cause people to abuse animals may also lead to harming humans later. Children should learn to value animals as living. They should be taught that animals can feel pain and that they must be treated with love and respect. They should be shown that animals can be a good and beneficial being in human lives and that animal and human lives alike demand respect. Even some contract killers such as Richard Kuklinski are known to have been animal abusers in early childhood.
Animal abusers are known to mistreat children as well. Spouse abuse and Elder abuse are also known to be conducted by known animal abusers. Northeastern University and the Massachusetts SPCA conducted a study in 1997 which indicated that almost 40% of animal abusers had also perpetrated violent crimes against humans. The FBI has known this since the 1970s however. Other studies indicate family abuse may be involved.  In 2001-2004 study was conducted by the Chicago Police Department which showed  65% of those arrested for animal abuse had been arrested for battery against another person as well. Child abuse is abuse against a human (I know this goes without saying, but this is the primary connection here). Abusive people often abuse animals, move on to children, then later adults although obviously this is not always the case.
Stopping animal abuse in children can prevent later abuse to humans. There is a strong connection indicating there is an animal abuse and criminal violence link. Animal abuse relates to domestic abuse. If there is physical abuse to children, studies say there is an 88% chance of animal abuse in the household. Animal neglect may indicate abuse toward humans. Animal abuse is not normal. It is not normal for children to abuse animals. Stopping the abuse can end it in the tracks or hopefully prevent abuse to humans.

Animals and Society: Childhood Pet Keeping

I see a lot of difference in the way that people who have animals treat animals if they have had them from a young age or not. I have always been surrounded by animals. I have been with people as friends or roommates that do not have the experiences I do. I grew up on a farm. I expect for instance, chickens will be chickens and get dirty some. Horses and dogs play in the mud. Ducks swim in not so clean pools. I have noticed with some people they will not get emotionally close to an animal because they think it is too dirty or large. I have an interest in exotic animals since we spent a lot of time at zoos and we did some primate observing with my mom (she could speak sign to the chimps and was in a psychology program). This gave me a closer understanding of how to communicate with the other animals and the realization that they were perfectly good communicators (as a child I Would talk to the chimps in sign language, but I have forgotten it all now, but we had conversations).

My mother documented the process, so it was interesting, and later, we would apply it to our home animals (which is one way I got into horse training for so long). My pets were the horses, I lived breathed, ate and did all my homework in the barn on a horse most of the time. I was climbing up on them every opportunity and considered them my “pets” even closer to them than I was the other animals like the cats and dogs (but I was close to them too). Other people I meet think animals don’t even have any feelings. I tell them what the chimp said, because she certainly had some opinions! Anyway I think its important to look at how my experience with my personal pets helped me bond with the chimpanzees at the zoo. I was close to horses and cats for the most part, but raised birds too. I think learning the responsibility of caring for an animal is absolutely vital. I see a lot of attitude differences in people, those who have had animals know that animals are unique individuals and people who don’t often see them as “scary” or dirty or unattainable. I grew up with horses, dogs, reptiles, cats, goats, and a variety of birds. Many of them were my personal pets or I was personally responsible for them. My attitude has pushed me more into the veterinary technology field.

Animals and Society: Animals in Language

Language can be used as a weapon to show human dominance over other species simply by context and meaning. Sometimes, words have origin in actual occurrences, such as surrounding the horse industry, farming industry, racing industry or the history of animals, such as their use as working animals, transportation or religious connotation. Some animals are mistreated more than others verbally. Traditionally horses are given more complimentary words than say a cat. However, there are insulting terms for many animals that are there to assert human dominance or show dominance over other animals.
Terms like “Let the cat out of the bag” imply that a cat is actually being kept in a bag. This may have some origin in people putting cats in bags and drowning them if there are too many kittens. This also happened to puppies. However, keeping animals in bags is normally frowned upon (except in some necessary cases, such as for restraint or transportation by trained individuals depending on the animal and circumstance). Even such terms as “making an ass of yourself” implies that asses are in some way inferior or possess difficult social skills.
Asses and mules are good, quality social creatures, like many herd animals. They have intricate bonds and develop a pecking order with quality interaction between herd members. They are sometimes considered stubborn, and this is where the term comes from when they say someone is stubborn as a mule. This is a speciest term which implies that all mules are stubborn. This may not actually be the case as each animal is an individual.

Animals and Society: Religion's Impact on Animals

Religion has several effects on how we treat animals and how humans have developed bonds with pets. There are some religions that say that animals are our brothers and sisters. Most religions promote the good treatment of animals. Many of them are anthropocentric, putting humans at the center of the world and making them the important animals that should be recognized. Some animals are actually put onto a more even playing field spiritually with humans There are some religions which promote the animals such as cattle as being highly evolved and spiritual creatures, sometimes even with magical powers. 
There are religions that honor goats, as well as those that cast them down as scapegoats. There are some religions that treat animals poorly, even abusing or torturing them and turning them into sacrifices or spectacles. There are many religions however, that embody the god treatment of animals and the well-being of all living creatures. Many of them promote healthy treatment of animals. In Bedouin cultures, it is said the more grain you give your horse, the more sins forgotten. Horses are held in high regard by some cultures, and given the positions of power often given to humans, such as oracles.
Pet keeping has come a long way as people find that caring for their animals are a good thing. The lives of many animals improve, however, there are some circumstances (Not usually pet ones) where animals suffer (such as puppy mills). Popularity of pet keeping has improved as people learn more about how animals are honored in their religions (or in others as people explore other faiths). It has certainly helped increase the keeping of animals, especially cats, dogs and horses. A cowboy church in the last town I lived in promoted horse keeping!

Animals and Society: Speciesism

Speciesism is the difference in treatment of individual beings since they are from a different biological category. For this example, they are a different species. Animals are judged off of these species, and they become specimens, they do not maintain their autonomy as an individual. There is a focus on the membership or non-membership of a particular group, and, for example, with animals being treated in a Speciesist way, there is discrimination and the animals are often harshly treated. I do not agree with Speciesism. It is hard to avoid it in this day and age. Dogs and cats are said to be a particular way based off of species.
Even now, it can be considered Speciesist to have pets. I have three pets, a fish, snake and iguana. All of my pets are in approved containers for their size and species (a little larger in fact) but they are still contained. This is considered a form of enslavement, and it is certainly Speciesist. You would not see humans put in cages and kept as “pets.” Certainly it is Speciesism that is present when my mom has milk goats and milks them, putting them to work, taking away their kids and keeping them contained. Of course, for many animals, they would not be able to survive in the wild or in the conditions of the weather. However, some people do cruel things to their animals, sometimes for the human’s comfort and sometimes for other reasons.
Animals are given lower quality food most of the time. They are often not fed as well, or with as much variety as humans. Some animals work and have to work very hard, such as dogs and horses. Some animals are trained regularly and go through strict regimens. Some animals may be contained or caged. Others may be physically abused. They may be provided limited space, inappropriate living conditions, lighting or food. Leather, wool, lanolin, eggs, honey, milk, meat and more are all examples of goods made from animals or animal ‘slavery.’ People often justify striking and yelling at animals. They are not considered intelligent. In many cases, they do not think animals have souls, or that the souls or intellect of animals are not as “important” or respectable as humans. Animals have all sorts of stereotypes that are mentioned on page 9 of the text. They can be used as insults to animals or to humans.
Animals that may be treated differently are dogs, cats, horses, birds, reptiles, fish and more. Dogs are used for a variety of uses. In some places, they may be treated quite harshly. They may have ears or tails docked. They may be abused, even intentionally sometimes, to create guard dogs. They may be for transportation, hunting, eventing or more. Birds such as chickens are kept in substandard conditions in many areas. Sometimes, their legs are cut off so they cannot move around. Sometimes the tips of their beaks are cut off, or their spurs removed.
Horse are treated roughly sometimes. They are used as transportation and to move heavy objects and to move things where other vehicles may not work. They sometimes have their body manipulated as well, such as tail docking. Cats are given less health care on the average compared to dogs, though because it doesn’t cost as much, they may go to the clinic for some reasons. They are also declawed. Cats are used by psychologists to monitor human emotional reactions, because their emotional repertoire is close to our own. So, when you hurt a cat, we KNOW it has emotional repercussions. Fish are given limited resources and space. Reptiles may be given inappropriate living conditions and inadequate lighting.

Animals and Society: Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy has many benefits which have been measured although more testing still needs to be done on them. The benefits of Animal Assisted Therapy are many. In addition, pet ownership is reported to be helpful in general. In 1980, evidence suggested that owners of animals experienced an increased year of survival over non-pet owners after being discharged from coronary Care Units. Further testing was done in 1988 by the National Institute of health who held a Technology Assessment workshop regarding how Animals benefited health. Dog ownership was later shown to have signs of lowering anxiety and providing human social support. These all helped in determining the survival rate after myocardial infarctions and indicated dog ownership was helpful. These all help in an assisted living as well. I have volunteered at several living care facilities and many of them had animals at the facility.
There is evidence that animals play a very good role in helping seniors feel better. When living alone, this is especially helpful. It improves life satisfaction for the pet owner. However it can also be a source of stress. Whereas it can impart confidence and assist the owner in feeling more self sufficient and doing more on their own, it can also be a source of anxiety. There are more smiles, laughs, looks,  leans and touches from all kinds of different people and these all help in social situations. Fish tanks encourage better eating and improve morale.
According to CRC Health, being around animals have even more benefits. Interacting with pets improves fine motor skills, balance, focus, attention, self esteem and more. People learn to care more for them selves in some ways too. It reduces blood pressure, depression and heart attack and stroke risk. It imparts trust, empathy, teamwork, self control, problem solving and even reduce the need for medications. It improves social skills as well as releasing endorphins. It improves your health in general, especially cardiovascular health.
As for the studies behind them, its harder to track and those are the primary challenges to the project. It cannot be easily compared to alternative therapy, and individuals need to be paired with an appropriate animal. Animals have to be maintained. To some it may increase stress. When a pet is loss, there is grief and sometimes excessive grief. There is risk of disease and injury. There is also a possibility that there can be psychological dependence. There have also been examples of pet hoarding.
It can be more effectively assessed by studying social and psychological characteristics. Determining who is going to benefit is key to the assessment. There are instruments and inventions that can be used. There are also examples such as resident mascots and visiting animals and whether long term bonds are more effective. In children hospitals, having guest animals come may be the highlight of the day! I watched several videos where the children and parents seemed to think it was a blessing to have the animals come. The project is hard to assess as it is not necessarily goal oriented and cannot be evaluated clearly. It can be assessed with the appropriate methodology, but durations would have to vary. They may not be aware of patient treatments in all the studies, but that may also have an impact on the study.


Animals and Society: Anthropocentrism

The horses, cattle, dogs, goats and more contributed greatly to human society. Though we regularly ignore their contributions. Horses were used for transportation, agriculture, resource accrual, war, entertainment, divination, spirituality, hunting and more, helping to expand humans over a large area and gave some individuals and cultures an advantage over others. Dogs contributed to companionship, hunting, resource gathering and status. Cats minimized disease and provided spiritual and companion based services. Birds like chickens, ducks and geese gave food sources. Goats, Sheep, Camels and Horses provided food and textile services.
These contributions have been largely minimized by some groups of anthropologists as they focus on human contributions to cultural achievements. The people who could get along well with the animals such as horse trainers in particular could provide a variety of services, such as horse and dog trainers as well as falconers all traditionally had marketable skills in many regions. Do to this human centered belief system, they tend to ignore how animals affect societies. They use biology to explain how animals act but if the animals are focused on, as he mentions, then we can learn more.
Anthropology is a study of humans and how they interact with species and their environment. This means that animals are rarely focused on and how things are sensed by animals does not usually come up. How animals are treated and their health and quality are not necessarily thought of in anthropological thought. Since they are economic resources or they are part of the human ecosystem, they are looked at more like a commodity. However, animals really affected some people. Some cultures even centered on animals or their migratory habits.
Social and culturality are considered by most to be completely human. The recognition or focus is on humans creating their own history. They have language, society, culture and it refers only to their own when referring to anthropology and so as a social science makes it human. However, some are interested in animal-human continuity. Animals and their roles are reduced and objectified.  If how animals truly felt was detailed, such as mentioned in Black Beauty, which I loved as a book, I think we learn more about how life was for animals. It is important to not forget the animal roles and what they did to move us along. I have a personal interest in how the horse helped move human culture around. However, there are other animals such as bull, reindeer, fish, goats and other animals that influenced the way humans lived, sometimes by defining where they were and when. However, understanding how and where animals live and their wild lives is very enlightening. Sometimes we learn things, like explaining what communication techniques we have in common with animals, what is biological in nature and what is unique to a particular species.

Fiction: Phoenix

When I first rescued Phoenix, the African Grey, he was not doing very well. The psittacine had been in the care of an individual who was not taking proper care of him. He had Vitamin A deficiency and had developed the Candida. This infection displayed itself as white lesions around the throat and mouth. He had been vomiting. He had very little appetite. He had made very few droppings. He had feathery stains above the cere from his nostrils which had a discharge. Immediately, I took over his care since his owner had no money and basically gave the clinic the bird.
I ensured that he got the treatment he needed. We began by determining what he had, which was through a mouth swab. We were able to determine how severe it was and to determine it was thrush. It was still able to be taken under control even though he was nearly listless and had stopped eliminating. The blood tests were able to confirm he was sick because the Vitamin A deficiency was so bad. I disinfected everything and he was given 7 days of Myocastin treatment. He was kept separate from all animals and people while he was being cared for. His nutrition was adjusted. I talked to him from the other side of the door so that he had some companionship. He was given foods rich in Vitamin A, such s dark leafy greens and orange colored produce.
Soon, he was feeling much better and his plumage began to look nicer. When I finally got to get him out of quarantine, he was so affectionate. I was able to pet his breast and he rubbed his forehead on my cheek. His syrinx was working! He immediately said “I love you!” right after I did. I love my new found friend, Phoenix! I got him all new toys, a new cuttlebone and sanitary food. He will need to be watched carefully, since he is potentially more susceptible to more sicknesses.

Fiction: Camel Feast

My family had chosen to have a camel as the feast highlight this year. Once again, my mother had to work hard to secure a camel for the process, which as normal was nearly impossible. However, here we were, not just with a camel, but with a stuffed camel. Mom had gone through a lot of work to prepare and procure this camel. The camel, a pseudoruminant, did not have a lot of fat, so the marbling was not as much as you would see on pork or mutton. We rendered some pig fat from some bacon and used that to help with the seasoning.

The camel had been cleaned of offal, trimmed and skinned and boiled the carcass until it was tender. It had then been stuffed with a selection of other meats. Twenty inbred chickens my mom had culled from the flock (Cornish X and Freedom Rangers crossbreeds) had been cooked and stuffed into the body capacity with hard boiled eggs and rice mixed with nuts. Mom had also culled a singleton dorset lamb whose conformation was not as desired, and as a dual purpose breed could be used for meat. The chickens had been stuffed into the lamb with additional roasted nuts and rice. The lamb was then stuffed into a camel, along with more nuts and rice. It had then been cooked over a large charcoal pit. A platter was arranged with rice, and the stuffed camel placed atop the rice. Mom had decorated it with more boiled eggs and nuts. She was tired, and directed me to help cut and serve the dish.

I eyed the expansive animal, and immediately began by cutting off the hind legs. I cut the loin, flank and breast of the camelid, revealing the lamb. I then slice along the loin, flank and breast of the lamb after removing its hind legs and hindshanks. I remove the lamb’s rack, and remove entire chickens, carving them as I normally would. I remove large legs, wings and remove the breasts of the chickens. Returning to the Camel, I cut and slice the shoulder and neck. I remove the rack, and slice off in pieces. I then do the same to the sheep and finish up the chickens. My family descends upon the meat with gusto.

Fiction: Kentucky Derby

Firing Line was brought in due to not eating, watery eyes and a cough. I took his temperature and a temperature of 104.5. This indicated the horse had the flu, or equine influenza. This myxovirus infection was contagious, so the horse was separated from the others and placed in quarantine. The horse had swollen lymph nodes and a nasal discharge that was clear. I indicated that he should stop being worked and he was kept in good conditions. Rest and care was required for the horse and I let them know that he may need at least three weeks of rest. Preliminary tests indicated there were no bacterial infections present.

I indicated to the owners that they should vaccinate the horse and that it provided some protection. I also let them know they should administer boosters every three to six months. I let the owners know that the horse could shed the virus up to ten days after administering the vaccine, so the horse should be kept secreted to prevent other horses from being exposed.  I let them know they should not work him for two days after being administered the vaccine. He was put into a box stall and tended.

International Star was brought in with some lameness in his right hind leg. The owner indicated it could have been caused by him being overworked. Sesamoiditis was suspected since it was accompanied by windpuffs, soft swellings which were fluid filled and toward the rear of the fetlock joint. The proximal sesamoids and sesamoid sheath of the flexor tendon had painful inflammation.

This is fairly common among racehorses but indicated an ongoing problem that had been building up so we decided to get further information to determine how to care for the horse. Radiographs were taken. Shoes were changed and pads were added. Egg bar shoes were given to the horse. The farrier ensured they had a wide bevel and the toes were squared. To reduce stress, the toe was pulled back and the shoe was set back Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered to bring down the inflammation. I let his owner know it may be about eight months before he would be ready to race.

Danzig Moon also had some issues as he was displaying some soft swelling on the fetlock joint. Since it was only on the cranial side, I considered it a mild case of osselets. Considered a form of arthritis of the metacarpophalangeal joint, the horse indicated it was painful. He had a gait which appeared rather short and uneven, which made it a little difficult at first to determine what was wrong. After should issues were eliminated as a cause, we focused on the osselets condition. This was treated by a nerve block. We then took radiographs. Since it was caught early, it was treatable. Cold therapy was used first, later we integrated hot therapy and dimethyl sulfoxide. He reacted well to the treatment and it was indicated to the owners it may be 4-6 weeks of stall rest and therapy.

Fiction: Zoo

I quickly go over what I need to do to tend to the sheep, goats and pigs at the Cool Zoo Petting Zoo. I realize that according to the pharmacology, although none of the animals need any prescription drugs or over the counter drugs. Since there is no drug regimen, I decide I should at least take vitals and ensure the animals are healthy. I take measurements of their heart rate, respiration, weight and temperature. I take the temperature rectally and discover one of the pigs is running a fever at 104 F.
The pig seems normal in all other aspects. I quarantine, or separate this pig from the others since it may be ill and could pass along the illness to the other pigs. I alert my supervisor and I begin treatment on the pig. Since I wasn’t sure if he was refusing feed, I tested his appetite and he didn’t seem very interested in food. Concerned it is pig pneumonia, I administer antibiotics to the ham muscle through intramuscular injection. I administer 4cc of the antibiotics q12h, or every twelve hours. I clear out the pig’s anal glands and I am pleased to find them normal and the excretion is normal as well. To be thorough, I also check the anal glands on the goats and pigs. The other animals seem to have good constitutions.
I notice another pig problem though. One of the other pigs is practicing coprophagy, which means he is running around eating the feces of the other animals. I separate him and feed him separately, giving him some B12, since it is usually a sign of deficiency. I administer the B12 orally.
One of the Angora goats is dull and needs to be cleaned up, so I spend some time getting her clean and ready to be petted. The black self sheep is looking a little lonely so I administer a healthy dose of love and encourage her to wander back to the sheep herd which got lost in a corner of the paddock between two parts of the fence. After backing up the sheep and leading them on to a more reasonable grazing area, I give them all a quick once-over to make sure they are clean. I notice there are mongrels and purebred among the sheep, goats and pigs. One of the goats is ticked. The animals are all very docile and easy to handle.