Sunday, November 27, 2016

Where to go for Information on Heart Disease

I selected (Links to an external site.) which is by the Center for Disease Control. I selected it for its modern methods of research, the fact that it was the best one of the many websites I viewed and it is good quality. We use the Center for Disease Control in many of the classes I have participated in. They are excellent and have up to date information that is precise and well researched often with their own laboratories, they provide information to the professional fields, and of the websites I read through they had a very comprehensive website. This website selection was because of its trustworthy source, common cited use, thorough research, ease of use and quality of information. I think the presentation is easy to understand. You can always print information material from the Center for Disease control’s website which I really like.
The Center for Disease Control operates 24/7 to protect America’s health, security and safety. Diseases are researched, the security of the nation is monitored and the CDC helps protect against these and other concerns. They have advanced laboratories and computers to monitor health. They track disease. They help with medical care and nurture health. They fight diseases in other countries to prevent them entering the United States. The Center for Disease Control is very reliable providing up to date information on a variety of health concerns.
The Center for Disease control is recognized worldwide for its contributions to research and education.  They have lots of information on many subjects some of which overlap. They are about health concerns, toxins, environmental considerations and more. It is a go-to website for many professionals. Since they do a lot of research they are considered primary source on many subjects. They provide resources to other links and organizations. They have lots of programs and run informational programs as well. They are involved with education. They monitor diseases and toxins and other health concerns. They have laboratories and fund research.
On this website, it says that heart disease refers to many conditions. It has links to information on coronary artery disease, heart attacks and other related conditions. There are factsheets you can download too. It points out risk factors like smoking, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, age and family history. Some of these factors can be controlled.  It mentions that healthy diet, healthy weight, physical activating, not smoking/using tobacco and limiting the use of alcohol can all help to keep your blood pressure, cholesterol and sugar level normal to lower the risk of heart attack or heart disease. Heart disease kills more than 600,000 people a year and is the leading cause of death in the United States. Education material is available on this website for patients and professionals. Links to Journal Articles are reliable and have some recent up to date information available.
I recommend this website for its education, reliability and more. On the website: (Links to an external site.)it provides tips on practicing health living and integrating them into habits and how to treat and prevent medical conditions. This website provides information on heart disease, the risk factors, how you can prevent heart disease, statistics, educational information, journal articles and even a quiz to test what you know. You can also sign up for email updates. You can explore the rest of to find out more information on other conditions.

Eating Disorders: Concerns with Food Purity, Effects on Pregnancy and how Post Traumatic Stress affects Eating Disorders

Anorexia is when you starve yourself to loose weight. Binge eating is characterized by eating a lot. Bulimia is when vomiting, laxatives and/or weight loss are used.  

Lets take a look at some articles from the National Eating Disorders Website....

Kratina, Karin. Orthorexia Nervosa.

I selected one on Orthorexia and I found it very interesting since I know a lot of people who do it. It is interesting because I know some people who fast and eat very healthy and get upset because of their lifestyle. I have flipped in and out of this kind of lifestyle myself. I have been in religious organizations which taught some methods of fasting and said they were good. I know now how dangerous some of the fasts were (especially week long orange fasts) which may have been particularly unhealthy. Eating healthy is good, but some people have obsession over food and it becomes unhealthy. They think often about the food, its purity and quality as well as being very rigid.

There is self-punishment and self-esteem issues in regard to food. It can be dangerous physical, crowd out other things a person is doing and is interested in as well as causing social issues. Dr. Steven Bratman coined this term and it is not for an eating disorder officially but is very similar to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The obsession is about eating healthy though, not about thin-ness and weight loss. IT may at first be health motivated but it can also be motivated to prevent poor health, to control, for spirituality, for improving self-esteem, to try to attain thin-ness to get away from fears and to use food for identity creation.

There are a series of questions asking if you fulfill any of the criteria for this and how it affects control and self-esteem. The diet can actually be very unhealthy with self-imposed nutritional deficiencies. There are social problems that are more likely to be obvious than nutritional. Isolation because the food is what they plan their life around takes up much of the time and can no longer eat intuitively. They don’t know when to recognize they are hungry, determine the amount of food they need and how much it takes to get full and when they get full. They often find difficulties with diet due to the lack of natural eating. It can become consuming and make life difficult.

It can reduce the quality of life. If a healthy diet is taking a lot of time and attention in your life if you deviate and have self-esteem and guilt issues and use it to avoid life and keep you isolated, it is a problem. It is hard to recognize since the society presses for healthy eating and being thin. Motivation is hard to pin down since it has many sides. The orthorexic needs to admit there is a problem and determine how the obsession began. They then need to become flexible eating. They need to work through emotional issues. They need to be less dogmatic regarding food and eating.

It is not a condition a doctor will diagnose but can require professional help to address it. They need to recognize and understand eating health and that food does not make you a better person. They basing of self-esteem on diet quality is not rational. Identity needs to shift to a focus on the person who loves, works and is fun not “the person who eats healthy” and they will find that although food is important there are other things that are more important.

Next, I read about Pregnancy and Eating disorders. A child needs the appropriate food for a fetus to be able to live and thrive to eventually be born and survive. The child needs the building blocks to make up the body. Eating disorders need to be taken care of to ensure the mother is psychologically and physical able to have and take care of a baby.

When a woman is pregnant, her body drains her to fuel the fetus. If there is not enough, the woman can become malnourished with causes serious health issues including exhaustion and depression. A woman can gain 25-35 pounds when pregnant which is important and can be scary to women with eating disorders. Some can do it as a “sacrifice” and do well and cope, while others become very depressed and most women fall in between.

Women and children are at risk. Women risk postpartum depression, nursing issues, labor issues, premature birth, depression during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, cardiac irregularities, dehydration and poor nutrition.

Children born underweight have poor development difficulties perinatal and feeding issues, respiratory issues, low birth weight for their age and premature birth. Eating disorders should be taken care of and women should have medical and psychological help and are considered at risk.
Women should be honest with health care providers, have extra appointments, talk to a nutritionist, take counseling, go to a support group and potentially take exercise class for perinatal. There are parenting skill, child development, childbirth and pregnancy classes that will be helpful. Weighing should be done but can be done without the mother monitoring by the doctor. Obsessive compulsive problems should be taken care of as well as severe depression. A schedule should be on the pregnancy schedule and therefore stressors should be reduced.

The final piece I read was on how trauma and post traumatic stress disorder affect eating disorders. Violence and other trauma can cause psychiatric disorders including eating disorders. Bulimic symptoms are particular common. Stress is overwhelming and can cause dysfunction, disease and distress. When there is too much stress it is traumatic which refers to event, experience and effects as defined by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. There are people who may be at more risk such as having psychological or biological and depression issues. Different people cope differently so for some people what is traumatic to one may not be traumatic to someone else.

There are two kinds of coping. Avoidant coping involves self punishment, self defeating and has a negative medical effect. Active coping involves problem solving and has better results medically. People with eating disorders are vulnerable to stress. There often have more than one disorder. They are more likely to think someone is thinking bad of them or see hostile or threats. They may be more anxious and fear loss of control. 

There are other issues that also may be involved with issues around change inhibition, anxiety, coherence, seeing the bit picture and sensitivity. Post Traumatic stress disorder is often involved nad include re-experiencing traumatic symptoms, hyperarousal symptoms, avoidance, symptoms and having mood or thinking issues when considering the traumatic event and it is chronic. Ten years after no treatment, those suffering still often have the disorder and may develop new ones. They are often used to numb trauma and reduce anxiety about he trauma. To be treated, they need to have both conditions treated. Therapy is necessary as is communicating and working with friends and medical individuals.

Work Cited

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

European Domination of the Americas

European’s sought global domination, which not all regions sought. Geography may have influenced when and why Europeans left. They were in search of gold and glory. They were seeking fame and fortune. They were going into regions to seek gold and other items. They were often from rural areas, such as Pissarro, and through conquest they are remembered as warriors and great conquerors. Spaniards invaded Peru and taken control of the area.

The powerful Inca underestimated Europeans. They thought they were wearing cooking pots on their head. They thought since the Europeans were sending gifts that they were being friendly. The Inca people thought the Europeans were lesser people because they wore the pot and did not use it to cook. They did not realize that the Europeans were very well armed with very advanced weaponry including gunpowder where Europeans made them light and useable. Rudimentary guns were terrifying and though they were awkward, took a long time to load and may not have been reliable, the dangerous guns were loud with a powerful smell.

Some areas were secluded and did not have access to communications with other groups. Other regions were in less secluded areas which allowed the to other technologies like animals, writing and more. When the people arrived with animals and goods they were believed to be Gods. Guns sounding like thunder reinforced this belief.

Smallpox virus would infect thousands of Native Americans. They had no resistance, so they would grow very ill from it. They would get a rash with blisters that would eventually burst, infect and kill. It is highly contagious. It hit even the Inca Empire. It decimated the populations. This would make it easier to conquer. Europeans were exposed to the animals and pets. The zoonotic diseases immunized European populations over 10,000 years. There were as many of or not the same resistances in Native American populations.

Whole populations were immunized this way in Europe, but this immunization did not take place in Native American populations. This meant that the diseases spread rapidly and lethally. They did not have the physical contact with farm animals. Llamas are not kept the same ways as Europeans keep animals, so the animals were in a unique way, more sanitary conditions. The worst diseases were originally from Eurasia and Africa and so they spread globally.

They had weapons, metalsmithing, horses, advanced combat techniques and more. They had resistances, immunities and carried a variety of diseases from the animal handling they had. They came from regions where they had plenty of time to adapt to the diseases. The people in the America’s had not had time to adapt to those diseases. They had draft animals. They also had a variety of goods they had already had access too. This created a novelty when they entered areas. This provided an opportunity to trade. There may also be disputes over trade.

In the new world all the farming had to be done by hand since the llama was the only docile stock animal they had though they didn’t really use it for farming purposes. They worked by hand therefore could not produce as much as Europeans.

Horses were a sense of awe and power. People thought them amazing to be carried by animals and though they were part human and part horse (beast). This meant they thought they were gods. Horses provided transportation, food and draft. Horses were able to give them speed. The advantage of being in horseback provides instant protection against people on foot. Horses meant that draft such as large farming and lumber could be conducted. Large amounts of food could also be transported along with other supplies.

In Europe, the horse provided the key for moving large items which would go into the creation and production of metal and shipbuilding objects. This powerful backing from their homeland would give them the ships to get there, the horses to carry their generals, the weapons for their armies, the training for their warriors and the food to feed them. Other animals such as goats, cattle and more provided some of the same advantges such as food, milk, textiles, advantages in farming and more.
Horses meant that their riders were mobile and in control of the land that they inhabited. Horse based combat was also exercised. Different regions developed different combat styles, and the Spanish horse combat style is very advanced and gives the rider unique techniques. They were good for working with bulls and translated well to combat. Horses were intimidating to their riders’ enemies.

They had access to good quality steel weapons while the Inca people were still using Bronze for instance. The fertile crescent is where metalworking started, and so they got it early on from the Fertile Crescent and used it to advance their weapons and create armor. Weapons like swords were advanced into thin blades like rapiers and Toledo blades. This was because of the quality of the blade and the metal as well as how pliable it was. Forging is a sophisticated and advanced form of training (I have made a few things but only the basics of armor).

There are a variety of negative outcomes from the conquest on the Americas. Huge civilizations were lost to conquest. Many artifacts were lost forever. There are Native American bodies which were exhumed and taken into possession by other organizations and groups. Gold from the Americas was taken back to Spain. They sent more people and eventually other countries would begin to move in. The Colonization of the Americas would be done by many countries who disregarded the rights and liberties of the people who originally lived in the regions. They would often do mass killings to remove entire groups from the region.

I see these as negative outcomes. I think that there are plenty of regions that were able to learn and adapt to the modern world without suffering through conquest. But many of the things that were created due to European rule over the Americas may not have happened or happened as early as they did. Different technologies may have been developed though. Sadly, we will never know what could have happened, but we can surmise what are some of the things that could have occurred. This region would be likely under control of one of the local groups.

In the region I am in that means that there would be Miwak, Suisun, Patwin, Pomo and Wappo in these regions. I am fine with that and I consider that positive. Native groups would be larger, not restricted to reservations and possess all of their original freedoms as well as rule themselves.

Langlois, Bertrand. "The History, Ethnology and Social Importance of Mare’s Milk Consumption in Central Asia"

I will be examining:
Langlois, Bertrand. "The History, Ethnology and Social Importance of Mare’s Milk Consumption in Central Asia". In the Journal of Life Sciences 5 (2011) 863-872, October 30, 2011.

Langlois explains that the origins of the domesticated horse are difficult to pinpoint, as is the time of domestication. When the horse is domesticated, it is firmly documented 10,000 years ago but Langlois cites the use of halters in cave art depictions of horses. Additionally documentation is presented on the horse as being presented as a milk and meat animal in Botai, in Kazakhstan, near Mongolia. Signs of domestication are found and later, this would develop into chariot and harness use. Langlois goes on to explain that riding the horse is originally from the steppes of Kazakhstan .
In addition to harnesses, other horse based technology would come out of these regions to become instrumental influences on world history. To ease riding and mounted combat, they created the tree saddle and most likely wooden stirrups. They also developed good composite bows for riding and using from horseback.  In some regions, riders would instead learn the lance instead of bow. These forms of riding and combat would later influence other cultures and regions who would adopt these weapons, horses and technology.
Do to a scarcity of goods horses were domesticated in roving herds and people followed them. There are also customs discouraging the preservation of food for winter to avoid being more like agricultural groups. Animals are born and raised for resistance to the elements, such as the terrible cold and lack of food. Usually, these animals are horses, but some regions specialize in other animals more adapted to the specific location. Efforts are made to preserve nature and make minimal impact and locations are observed.
There are evaluations done based off their Nomadic farming called “zhud” which are crisis which can strike, such as over grazing, regions icing over and drought. They disperse from regions of zhud and seek to minimize the effects on the land. Animals which prevent overgrazing yet are good at grazing are favored. Religious discrimination exists among animals, with a favoritism to warm muzzled animals such as horses (rather than cold muzzled animals like camels, goats and cattle) for its ability to discriminate when grazing. This makes the Mongolian horse and efficient meat animal for the region with good adaptions. It was also a good war and combat mount.
Mongolian horses are honored and they have many things made of the products and animals are evaluated on their ability to give milk. Airag is made from mare’s milk. Mare’s milk is considered consecrated and magical. The Airag is also used in rites and rituals like the mare’s milk. It is also used as medicine. Horse milk is like human milk in it being lightest and aqueous with high lactose and low fat. They may help prevent the tissues of the intestinal epithelium from infections and tumors with fat globules. The milk has some elements to help with tissue repair and is similar to the human composition of 1:1 protein ratio in milk and so cannot be used to make cheese. The casein is beta-casein with a little alpha-casein and almost no kappa-casein, which may be why it is hypoallergenic.
Although some regions are commercially milking horses in larger scales, it may not prove to be economical in other regions in the long run. The commercial making of horse milk based drinks are heavily monitored. It is difficult to purchase and more likely to just be readily available handmade in the steppes rather than commercially.

Although the horse’s milk has been very valuable for a long time it is not likely to be commercially available. It is still nutritionally similar in some ways to a human milk and is hypoallergenic. It cannot be used to make cheese along yet it has many health benefits. It is also ecological. However, for those vulnerable to lactose, the milk is higher in lactose than other mils although infant may digest them well. Education is important as the cultures are surrounded by globalization and move away from traditions.

Plants are Cool

 Plants have adapted as they compete for resources, space, light, food and water, temperature, weather/seasons, a balance of nutrients, try to reproduce and battle predators. They have found ways to create toxins, hunt prey, deceive other animals and more. The movement and growth of plants takes place slowly so we do not always notice them. Bristlepines are the oldest living things on earth. Bamboo is the fastest growing plant, growing to 30 meters in 90 days. 

Forest canopies restrict the growth of plants below them. Some plants have adapted to ways to climb larger trees as scaffolding to reach the tree above the canopy so they can get enough light to flower. Some plants grow in the tops of other plants. Sundews, Venus flytraps (I have one which is flowering), and other plants catch prey. Sundew use a sticky dew like substance to hold prey and roll over prey to harvest the insects for nitrogen. Venus Flytraps envelop prey in mouth like leaves that trap the prey in cages. We had pitcher plants in Oregon when I was a child, and I saw it capture prey in vase like folds along the stalk. Some plants adapt to coexist with pollinators like bats, insects and birds to help transfer pollen to ensure that the plants are pollinated. 

Some plants use defense mechanisms that poison, drown or trap predators like caterpillars and insects. Milkweed creates a unique defense mechanism that uses a sticky substance to drown and trap monarch caterpillars so only 1/3 of caterpillars make it past the first day. Caterpillars that live carefully cut off the main veins supply of latex to the leaf so they can eat without being harmed. The Heliconia has bright red leaves with tiny flowers on them. It guards nectar and the purple -throated harib hummingbird is the only bird that can get at it. The plant rations it, and forces the bird to make multiple visits to multiple flowers which it will force the bird to defend from predators as well as be a pollinator. 

Some plants find neat ways to transfer seeds, such as the Brunzigia, which creates a flower stalk that when tried will roll across the windy landscape when pushed by the air, widely dispersing the seeds. Some plants give their seeds wings.  Some defend themselves from weather conditions (and sometimes predators) with resins and the shapes of their leaves. Mangroves find ways to survive in high levels of salt water by using specialized roots with pores that help to provde the plant with respiration and filter salt. Extra salt is released by leaves which help to contribute to the ocean ecosystem as a food source. To react to seasons, broad plants develop leaves that shed in autumn, and pine trees develop antifreeze in their waxy needles.

Works Cited

Attenborough, David, W.W., D.D. December 2009. Plants. In P. Spillenger, Paul. Life. Britain: British Broadcasting Corporation.